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Chemical Thermodynamics important points: Chemical thermodynamics is the study of energy changes that accompanies chemical reactions. The first law of thermodynamics states that the energy cannot be created or destroyed.

Enthalpy is the sum of the internal energy and product of pressure and volume of a system. Enthalpy change (∆H) is the difference between enthalpy of the products and the reactants in a chemical reaction. Standard enthalpy of formation (∆H°f) is the enthalpy change when one mole of a substance is formed from its elements in its standard states.

Hess’s Law states that enthalpy change of a reaction is independent of the pathway taken to reach the products. The second law of thermodynamics states that total entropy of a closed system cannot decrease over time. Gibbs free energy (∆G) is the energy that is available to do work in a system. A reaction is said to be spontaneous if ∆G is negative. The equilibrium constant (Kc) is the ratio of concentrations of the products and the reactants at equilibrium. Le Chatelier’s principle states that a system at equilibrium will shift to counteract any changes in its concentration, pressure, or temperature.

Reaction rates are influenced by the temperature, concentration, and the presence of a catalyst. The collision theory explains that the chemical reactions occurs when the reactant particles collides with sufficient energy and proper orientation. The rate-determining step is the slowest step in a chemical reaction mechanism that determines the overall rate of the reaction.

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Chemical Thermodynamics Important Points

NCERT Chemistry Clas 11 Chapter 6 – Chemical Thermodynamics 25 Important Points

There are 25 important points on Chemical Thermodynamics-

  1. Chemical thermodynamics is the study of energy changes that accompanies chemical reactions.
  2. Energy can be present in different forms such as heat, light, work, potential energy, etc.
  3. The first law of thermodynamics states that the energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred or converted from one form to the another.
  4. The internal energy of a system is the sum of its kinetic and it’s potential energies.
  5. Enthalpy is the sum of the internal energy and the product of pressure and volume of a system.
  6. Enthalpy change (∆H) is the difference between enthalpy of the products and the enthalpy of the reactants in a chemical reaction.
  7. A reaction is said to be exothermic if it releases heat (∆H < 0) and endothermic if it absorbs heat (∆H > 0).
  8. Standard enthalpy of formation (∆H°f) is defined as the enthalpy change when one mole of a substance is formed from its elements in their standard states at a given temperature and pressure.
  9. Hess’s Law states that enthalpy change of a reaction is independent of the pathway taken to reach the products.
  10. Bond energy is defined as the energy required to break a bond in a molecule.
  11. The second law of thermodynamics states that total entropy of a closed system cannot decrease over time.
  12. Entropy (∆S) is a measure of degree of randomness or disorder in a system.
  13. Gibbs free energy (∆G) is the energy that is available to do work in a system.
  14. ∆G° is the change in Gibbs free energy when a reaction occurs at standard conditions i.e. (1 atm, 25°C, and 1 M concentration).
  15. A reaction is said to be spontaneous if ∆G < 0, non-spontaneous if ∆G > 0, and at equilibrium if ∆G = 0.
  16. Standard free energy of formation (∆G°f) is the free energy change when 1 mole of a substance is formed from its elements in their standard states at a given temperature and pressure.
  17. The equilibrium constant (Kc) is the ratio of concentrations of products and reactants at equilibrium.
  18. The reaction quotient (Qc) is the ratio of concentrations of products and reactants at any point during a reaction.
  19. Le Chatelier’s principle states that a system at equilibrium will shift to counteract if any changes in concentration, pressure, or temperature occurs.
  20. Van’t Hoff equation relates the equilibrium constant (Kc) to temperature dependence of the reaction.
  21. Reaction rates are influenced by the temperature, concentration, and the presence of a catalyst.
  1. Activation energy is defined as the energy required to initiate a chemical reaction.
  2. The Arrhenius equation relates the rate constant (k) to activation energy and temperature.
  3. The collision theory explains that the chemical reactions occurs when reactant particles collides with sufficient energy and proper orientation.
  4. The rate-determining step is the slowest step in a chemical reaction mechanism that determines the overall rate of the reaction.

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