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NCERT Biology Important points for NEET 2022

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NCERT Biology Important points for online study.

Scientists and Related Fields

  1. Ernst Mayr (1904-2004) : Evolutionary Biologist
  2. Matthias Schleiden : German Botanist
  3. Julius von Sachs : German Botanist
  4. Theodore Schwann : British Zoologist
  5. Cornelius van Niel : Microbiologist
  6. Alfonso Corti : Italian Anatomist
  7. Dr. W. Dudgeon : American Missionary Teacher.
  8. P. Maheshwari : Indian Botanist
  9. Reginald C. Punnet : British Geneticist
  10. George Gammow : Physicist
  11. Alfred Wallace : Naturalist
  12. Lamarck : French Naturalist
  13. Edward Wilson : Sociobiologist.
  14. Paul Ehrlich : Stanford Ecologist
  15. Ramdeo Misra : Indian Ecologist
  16. Francois Jacob : Geneticist
  17. Jacque Monad : Biochemist
  18. Alexander von Humboldt : German Naturalist & Geographer
  19. Rene Descartes : French Philosopher,
    Mathematician and Biologist. {NCERT Biology Important table}
NCERT Biology Important points
NCERT Biology Important table

Sizes in NCERT Biology

  1. Diameter of pollen grain : 25-50 micrometer.
  2. Diameter of RBC : 7 micrometer.
  3. Smallest cell : Mycoplasma (0.3 micron in length)
  4. Largest cell : Egg of an ostrich
  5. Typical eukaryotic cell : 10-20 Micron
  6. Typical eukaryotic plant cell : 50 micrometer
  7. Typical plant cell : Onion cell
  8. Typical eukaryotic cell cycle : Human cells in culture.
  9. Size of bacteria : 3-5 micron
  10. Typical bacteria : 1-2 micrometer
  11. Viruses : 0.02 – 0.2 micrometer
  12. Diameter of G.B. cisternae : 0.5-1 Micron
  13. Diameter of mitochondria : 0.2-1 µm (Average 0.5 µm)
  14. Length of mitochondria : 1-4.1 micron
  15. Length of chloroplast : 5-10 micrometer (µm)
  16. Width of chloroplast : 2-4 micrometer
  17. Length of E. coli DNA : 1.36 mm
  18. Length of Human DNA : 2.2 m {NCERT Biology Important points}

Experimental Materials

  1. Engleman experiment : Cladophora (green algae).
  2. Priestely experiment : Mint plant
  3. Van Niel experiment : Purple & green sulphur bacteria
  4. Mendel’s work : Garden pea (Pisum sativum).
  5. Hugo de Vries work on mutation : Evening primrose.
  6. Morgan’s work : Drosophila melanogaster.
  7. Griffith experiment : Streptococcus pneumoniae.
  8. Hershy & Chase experiment : Bacteriophage [Bacterial viruses]
  9. Meselson & Stahl experiment : E. coli bacteria.
  10. Taylor’s work : Vicia faba (faba beans)
  11. Melvin Calvin’s work : Algal photosynthesis {NCERT Biology Important points from neetexambooster.in }

Ph.D.

  1. 1931 : Katherine Esau (United state).
  2. 1937 : Ramdeo Misra – In Ecology (From Leeds University, U.K.)
  3. 1949 : G.N. Ramachanadaran (From Cambridge university)
  4. 1950 : Watson-The effect of hard X-rays on bacteriophage multiplication
  5. 1954 : Crick – X-ray diffraction: polypeptides & protein.
  6. 1935 : Melvin Calvin-Ph.D. in chemistry (from University of Minnesota)

NOBEL PRIZES

  1. 1945 : Fleming, Chain & Florey
  1. 1961 : Calvin (in Chemistry)
  2. 1962 : Watson, Crick & Wilkins.
  3. 1968 : Holley, Nirenberg & Hargobind Khorana.
  4. 2005 : Chavin, Grubbs & Shrock (in chemistry). {NCERT Biology Important pointsfrom neetexambooster.in }

OTHER PRIZES

  1. Padma Bhushan Award : M.S. Swaminathan
  2. Sanjay Gandhi Award in Environment and Ecology : Ramdeo Misra.
  3. Triple Crown (Balzan Prize in 1983, the international prize for biology
    in 1994, and the crafoord prize in 1999) : Ernst Mayr.
  4. Lasker Award : Watson & Crick. {NCERT Biology Important pointsfrom neetexambooster.in }

Term coined by

  1. Term Virus : Ivanowsky (NCERT Correction-2019-20)
  2. Term Chromatin : Flemming
  3. Term Linkage : Morgan
  4. Term Recombination : Morgan
  5. Term Mutation : Hugo de Vries
  6. Term Biodiversity popularised by : Edward Wilson. {NCERT Biology Important pointsfrom neetexambooster.in }

Units

  1. Unit of classification : Taxon/category/rank.
  2. Unit of Neural system : Neurons
  3. Functional unit of kidney : Nephron.
  4. Anatomical unit of muscle : Muscle fibre/muscle cell.
  5. Functional unit of contraction : Sarcomere
  6. Functional unit of inheritance : Genes.
  7. Unit of Noise Pollution : dB (Decibel).
  8. Unit of ozone layer thickness : DU (Dobson Units).
  9. Functional unit of Nature : Ecosystem.
  10. Structural and functional unit of all living organisms : Cell.
  11. Reproductive unit in the angiosperms : Flower
  12. Unit of water potential : Pascals (Pa) or any other pressure unit.
  13. Structural and functional units of liver : Hepatic lobules
  14. Structural and functional unit between developing embryo (foetus) and
    maternal body : Placenta
  15. Functional unit of kidney : Nephron {NCERT Biology Important pointsfrom neetexambooster.in }

Data of NCERT for Humans

1. Weight of Liver : 1.2 to 1.5 kg

2. Weight of Kidney : 120 to 170 gm

3. Number of lobes in Liver : 2

4. Number of salivary glands : 3 pairs

5. Number of portions in stomach : 4 (Cardiac, fundic, body & Pyloric).

6. Stomach stores food for : 4 to 5 hours.

7. pH of saliva : 6.8

8. pH of gastric juice : 1.8

9. pH in duodenum : 7.8

10. pH of urine : 6.0

11. Breathing rate : 12-16 times/minute

12. Tidal volume : 500 mL

13. IRV : 2500 – 3000 mL

14. ERV : 1000 – 1100 mL

15. RV : 1100 – 1200 mL

16. Water in plasma : 90-92%

17. Water in watermelon : 92%.

18. Water in herbaceous plants : 85-90%.

19. Water in human cell : 70-90%.

20. Colon is divided in : 4 parts (Ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid parts). (NCERT Correction-2019-20)

21. Solubility of CO2 is 20-25 times higher than that of O2 .

22. Diffusion membrane is made up of 3 layers.

23. Total thickness of diffusion membrane : < 1 mm

24. No. of wall layers in alimentary canal (from oesophagus to rectum) : 4

25. Gastric gland have 3 type of cells : Mucus neck cells, chief cells and parietal cells

26. Every 100 ml of oxygenated blood can deliver how much O2 to tissues : 5 mL

27. Every 100 ml of deoxygenated blood delivers how much CO2 to the alveoli : 4 mL {NCERT Biology Important points from neetexambooster.in }

(NCERT Biology Important points)

Shapes in NCERT Biology

  1. Pollen grains are generally : Spherical
  2. Nucleolus : Spherical
  3. Centriole : Cylindrical
  4. Mitochondria : Sausage shaped or cylindrical
  5. RBCs : Round & biconcave
  6. Mesophyll cell : Round & Oval
  7. Trachied : Elongated
  8. Columnar epithelium : Long & narrow.
  9. WBCs : Amoeboid.
  10. Nerve cell (longest cell) : Long & Branched
  11. Henle’s loop : Hairpin bend
  12. Stomach : J-shaped
  13. Spleen & kidney : Bean shaped
  14. Thymus : Lobed organ.
  15. Patella : Cup shaped
  16. Bowman’s capsule : Double walled cup-like structure
  17. Heart : Clenched fist (size)
  18. Oxygen dissociation curve : Sigmoid.
  19. Diaphragm : Dome shaped.
  20. Smooth muscle : Fusiform.
  21. Setae : S-shaped
  22. Intestinal caecae : Conical
  23. Root hair : Thread like
  24. Root cap : Thimble like
  25. Tongue of frog : Bilobed
  26. Nucleus of vegetative cells : Irregular
  27. Generative cell : Spindle shaped.
  28. Ommatidia of cockroach : Hexagonal
  29. Anther : Four sided (Tetragonal)
  30. Cotyledon (maize/grass) : Shield shaped.
  31. Archegonium of bryophytes : Flask shaped.
  32. Gills of molluscs : Feather like.
  33. Radula of molluscs : File like
  34. Chiasmata : X- shaped
  35. Testis : Oval
  36. Uterus : Inverted pear.
  37. Fimbriae & Clitoris : Finger like.
  38. Vasa recta & hyoid bone : U-shaped
  39. Duodenum : C-shaped {NCERT Biology Important points from neetexambooster.in }
  40. Verhulst – Pearl logistic growth curve : Sigmoid
  41. Exponential or geometric growth curve : J – shaped
  42. In female cockroach, 7th sternum is : Boat shaped
  43. Antennae & anal styles of cockroach : Thread like
  44. Head of cockroach, Scapula and Sinus venosus of frog : Triangular
  45. Microsporangium : Near circular in outline (in transverse section).
  46. Male gonapophysis or phallomere : Asymmetrical structure (Chitinous)

FULL FORMS

  1. ICBN : International Code for Botanical Nomenclature
  2. ICZN : International Code of Zoological Nomenclature
  3. NBRI : National Botanical Research Institute (Lko.)
  4. CDRI : Central Drug Research Institute (Lko.)
  5. IBG : Indian Botanical Garden (Howrah)
  6. PSTD : Potato Spindle Tuber Disease
  7. PPLO : Pleuro Pneumonia Like Organisms
  8. [S] : Concentration of substrate
  9. RRC : Respiratory Rhythm Centre (Medulla)
  10. GFR : Glomerular Filtration Rate
  11. JGA : Juxta-Glomerular Apparatus
  12. ANF : Atrial-Natriuretic factor
  13. GnRH : Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone
  14. GH : Growth Hormone
  15. PRL : Prolactin {NCERT Biology Important table from neetexambooster.in }
  16. TSH : Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
  17. ACTH : Adreno Corticotrophic Hormone
  18. MSH : Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone
  19. ADH : Vasopressin/Anti-diuretic Hormone
  20. T3: Triiodothyronine
  21. T4: Tetraiodothyronine or thyroxine
  22. TC T : Thyrocalcitonin
  23. PTH : Parathyroid hormone
  24. CCK : Cholecystokinin
  25. GIP : Gastric Inhibitory Peptide
  26. LHC : Light Harvesting Complex
  27. PGA : Phosphoglyceric acid
  28. OAA : Oxalo acetic acid
  29. RuBisCO : Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase.
  30. NAD : Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (Coenzyme).
  31. CoA : Coenzyme A
  32. TCA : Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle or Citric Acid Cycle.
  33. ETC : Electron Transport Chain
  34. RQ : Respiratory Quotient
  35. PGRs : Plant Growth Regulators
  36. NAA : Napthalene Acetic Acid
  37. 2, 4-D : 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid
  38. GA3: Gibberellic acid.
  39. PMC : Pollen mother cell/microscope mother cell.
  40. MMC : Megaspore mother cell.
  41. PEN : Primary Endosperm Nucleus.
  42. hCG : Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin
  43. hPL : Human Placental Lactogen
  44. RCH : Reproductive & Child Health Care.
  45. STDs : Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  46. VD : Venereal disease.
  47. RTI : Reproductive Tract Infections
  48. WHO : World Health Organisation
  49. MMR : Maternal Mortality Rate
  50. IMR : Infant Mortality Rate
  51. IUDs : Intra Uterine Devices
  52. OCPs : Oral Contraceptive Pills
  53. MTP : Medical Termination of Pregnancy
  54. ART : Assisted Reproductive Technologies
  55. ZIFT : Zygote Intra-fallopian transfer
  56. GIFT : Gamete Intra-fallopian transfer
  57. IUT : Intra Uterine Transfer
  58. IUI : Intra Uterine Insemination
  59. AIT/AI : Artificial Insemination Technique
  60. ICSI : Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection
  61. IVF : In-vitro fertilisation
  62. ET : Embryo transfer
  63. SCA : Sickle cell Anaemia
  64. PKU : Phenylketonuria
  65. NHC : Non-histone Chromosomal proteins
  66. snRNA : Small Nuclear RNA
  67. hnRNA : Heterogenous Nuclear RNA
  68. sRNA : Soluble RNA {NCERT Biology Important points from neetexambooster.in }
  69. UTR : Untranslated Regions
  70. HGP : Human Genome Project
  71. ELSI : Ethical, Legal & Social Issues
  72. BAC : Bacterial Artificial Chromosome
  73. YAC : Yeast Artificial Chromosome
  74. ESTs : Expressed Sequence Tags
  75. SNPs : Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  76. VNTR : Variable Number of Tandem Repeats
  77. SCRR : School of Cytogenetics & Radiation Reserch
  78. IARI : Indian Agricultural Research Institute (New Delhi)
  79. CMI : Cell – Mediated Immunity
  80. MALT : Mucosal Associated Lymphoid Tissue
  81. AIDS : Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome
  82. HIV : Human Immuno Deficiency Virus
  83. ELISA : Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay
  84. NACO : National AIDS Control Organisation
  85. NGOs : Non-Governmental Organisation
  86. C-onc : Cellular Oncogenes
  87. CT : Computed Tomography
  88. MRI : Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  89. LSD : Lysergic acid diethyl amide
  90. MOET : Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Technology.
  91. ICWMI : International Centre for Wheat & Maize Improvement
    (Mexico) {NCERT Biology Important points from neetexambooster.in }
  92. IRRI : International Rice Research Institute (Philippines)
  93. SCP : Single Cell Protein
  94. LAB : Lactic Acid Bacteria
  95. STPs : Sewage Treatment Plants
  96. BOD : Biochemical oxygen Demand
  97. DO : Dissolved Oxygen
  98. KVIC : Khadi & Village Industries Commission
  99. Bt : Bacillus thuringiensis.
  100. NPV : Nucleopolyhedro virus
  101. IPM : Integrated Pest Management
  102. EcoRI : Escherichia coli RY13.
  103. Ori : Origin of Replication
  104. pBR322 : Plasmid {NCERT Biology Important points from neetexambooster.in }
  105. Ti Plasmid : Tumor Inducing Plasmid
  106. Taq : Thermus aquaticus
  107. PCR : Polymerase Chain Reaction
  108. GMO : Genetically modified Organisms
  109. RNAi : RNA interference
  110. ADA : Adenosine deaminase
  111. GEAC : Genetic Engineering Approval Committee.
  112. NCEPC : National Committee for Environmental Planning &
    Coordination (1972)
  113. MOEF : Ministry of Environment & Forests (1984)
  114. INSA : Indian National Science Academy
  115. NP P : Net Primary Productivity
  116. GPP : Gross Primary Productivity
  117. GNP : Gross National Product
  118. GDP : Gross Domestic Product
  119. GFC : Grazing food chain
  120. DFC : Detritus food chain
  121. IUCN : International Union for Conservation of Nature &
    Natural Resources
  122. CPCB : Central Pollution Control Board
  123. CNG : Compressed Natural Gas
  124. ppb : Parts per billion
  125. ppm : Parts per million
  126. FOAM : Friends of Arcata Marsh
  127. DU : Dobson Units
  128. dB : Decibel {NCERT Biology Important points from neetexambooster.in }
  129. CFCs : Chloroflurocarbons
  130. JFM : Joint Forest Management (1980).

Important Cells in NCERT

  1. Heterocysts : Specialised cells found in Nostoc & Anabaena which
    help in fixation of atmospheric nitrogen.
  2. Smallest living cell is Mycoplasma
  3. Choanocytes or collar cells – Found in sponges that line the spongocoel
    & canals. {NCERT Biology Important points from neetexambooster.in }
  4. Cnidoblasts/cnidocytes – Found in coelentrata/cnidaria which contain
    the stinging capsules or nematocytes.
  5. Flame cells- Found in flat worms and help in osmoregulation &
    excretion.
  6. Statocysts- These are balancing organs found in arthropods.
  7. Root hair- Found in zone of maturation and help in water & mineral
    absorption.
  8. Guard cell- Encloses stomatal aperture or pore. Bean-shaped but in
    grasses dumb-bell shaped.
  9. Subsidiary cells- A few epidermal cells, in the vicinity of the guard
    cells become specialised in their shape & size & called subsidiary cells
  10. Bundle-sheath cells- The vascular bundles are surronded by a layer of
    thick walled bundle-sheath cells.
  11. Bulliform cells- In grasses, certain adaxial epidermis cells along the
    veins modify themselves into large, empty & colourlesss cells.
  12. Chondrocytes- Cells of cartilage
  13. Osteocytes- Bone cells. {NCERT Biology Important table from neetexambooster.in }
  14. Neuroglial cells- Found in the neural system which protect & support
    neurons.
  15. Goblet cells- Present in intestinal mucosal epithelium which secrete
    mucus.
  16. Mucus neck cells- Present in gastric gland & secrete mucus
  17. Peptic/cheif cells- Present in gastric gland & secrete pepsinogen.
  18. Parietal/oxyntic cells- Present in gastric gland & secrete HCl &
    intrinsic factor.
  19. Hepatic cells or hepatocytes- Found in liver.
  20. JG (Juxtaglomerular) cells- Release renin & erythropoietin hormones
  21. Neurosecretory cells (Nuclei) found in hypothalamus, which secrete
    hormones.
  22. Ganglion cells- Found in retina
  23. Bipolar cells- Found in retina
  24. Photoreceptor cells- Found in retina
  25. Rod cells- For twilight (scotopic vision)
  26. Cone cells- For day light (photopic vision)
  27. Organ of Corti contains hair cells
  28. Adipocytes- Cells of adipose tissue {NCERT Biology Important points from neetexambooster.in }
  29. PMNL (Polymorpho Nuclear Leukocytes)- A type of neutrophil providing
    cellular barrier in innate immunity.
  30. Natural killer cells- Type of lymphocyte providing cellular barrier.
  31. Macrophages- Present in tissue (areolar tissue) that can phagocytose
    & destroy microbes providing cellular barrier.
  32. Inner cell mass of human blastocyst contains stem cells which have
    the potency to give rise to all the tissues & organs.
  33. The epithelial cells of Bowman’s capsule called podocytes. {NCERT Biology Important table from neetexambooster.in }

Contributions of Biologists

  1. Binomial nomenclature was given by Carolus Linnaeus.
  2. Two kingdom system of classification was given by Carolus Linnaeus.
  3. Systema Naturae was written by Carolus Linnaeus.
  4. Artificial system of classification was given by Carolus Linnaeus.
  5. Natural System of classification for flowering plants was given by
    George Bentham & J.D. Hooker.
  6. 5 kingdom system of classification was given by R.H. Whittaker (1969).
  7. Aristotle was the earliest to attempt a more scientific basis for
    classification.
  8. Biological classification of plants & animals was first proposed by
    Aristotle. {NCERT Biology Important table from neetexambooster.in }
  9. Causal organism of the mosaic disease of tabacco is recognised by D.J.
    Ivanowsky (1892).
  10. Contagium vivum fluidum is called by M.W. Beijerinek (1898).
  11. Viruses crystallised by W.M. Stanley (1935).
  12. Viroids were discovered by T.O. Diener (1971).
  13. ‘Anatomy of Seed Plants’ published by Katherine Esau (1960).
  14. Curly top virus spreads through a plant via phloem tissue, it is reported
    by Katherine Esau
  15. Founder of Madras School of Conformational analysis of biopolymers
    was G.N. Ramachandran.
  16. Triple helical model of collagen was given by G.N. Ramachandran
  17. Ramachandran was influenced by Linus Pauling
  18. Darwin was influenced by Malthus
  19. P. Maheshwari was influenced by Dr. W. Dudegon
  20. - helix & - sheet structures was published by Linus Pauling
  21. Anton von Leeuwenhoek first saw & described a live cell.
  22. Cell theory was given by Schleiden & Schwann.
  23. Cell theory was modified by Rudolf Virchow (1855)
  24. Fluid mosaic model was given by Singer & Nicolson (1972)
  25. Golgi bodies was discovered by Camillo Golgi (1898)
  26. Ribosome was discovered by George Palade (1953)
  27. Nucleus was first discovered and described by Robert Brown (1831)
  28. Melvin Calvin earn Nobel Prize in 1961 for mapping of the pathway of
    carbon assimilation in PHS.
  29. Calvin work with J.A. Bassham {NCERT Biology Important points from neetexambooster.in }
  30. Hydroponics technique developed by Julius von Sachs (1860).
  31. O2
    was discovered by Joseph Priestley (1774)
  32. Priestley revealed the essential role of air in growth of green plants
    (1770).
  33. Jan Ingenhousz used a similar setup as the one used by Priestley.
  34. Jan Ingenhousz showed that sunlight is essential to the plant process.
  35. Jan Ingenhousz showed that it is only the green part of the plants
    that could release oxygen.
  36. Julius von Sachs provide evidence for production of glucose when
    plants grow.
  37. Sachs shows that the green susbtance in plants (chlorophyll) is located
    in special bodies (later called chloroplasts) within plant cells.
  38. Sachs found that the green parts in plants is where glucose is made &
    that the glucose is usually stored as starch.
  39. First action spectrum of PHS was described by T.W. Englemann.
  40. Van Niel demonstrated that PHS is essentially a light-dependent
    reaction in which hydrogen from a suitable oxidisable compound
    reduces carbon dioxide to carbohydrate.
  41. Van Niel inferred that the O2 evolved by green plant comes from H2
    O, not from CO2 {NCERT Biology Important table from neetexambooster.in }
  42. Calvin use radioactive C14 in algal photosynthesis studies that led the
    discovery that the first CO2 fixation product was a 3-carbon organic acid.
  43. Whole pathway of C3 – cycle was worked by Calvin and Benson.
  44. C4 – pathway was discovered by Hatch & Slack
  45. Law of limiting factors was given by Blackmann (1905)
  46. Scheme of Glycolysis was given by Embden, Meyerhof & Parnas. (EMP)
  47. Discovery of PGRs is started with the observation of Charles Darwin
    & his son Francis Darwin
  48. Charles Darwin & Francis Darwin observed that the coleoptiles of
    canary grass respond to unilateral illumination by growing towards
    the light source (Phototropism).
  49. Auxin was isolated from tips of coleoptiles of oat seedlings by F.W. Went.
  50. E. Kurosawa reported the appearence of symptoms of “Bakane (foolish
    seedlings) disease” in uninfected rice seedlings when they were
    treated with sterile filtrates of the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi.
  51. Skoog & his Co-workers observed that from the internodal segments of
    tobacco stems the callus proliferate only if, in addition to auxins, the
    nutrient medium was supplemented with one of the following : extract
    of vascular tissue, Yeast Extract, Coconut milk or DNA.
  52. Skoog & Miller identified, crystallised & termed Kinetin.
  53. Cousins confirmed the release of volatile substance from ripened
    oranges that hastened the ripening of stored unripened bananas.
  54. P. Maheshwari established department of botany at university of Delhi
    as important centre of research in Embryology & Tissue culture.
  55. P. Maheshwari emphasised the need for initiation of work on artificial
    culture of immature embryos. {NCERT Biology Important points from neetexambooster.in }
  56. P. Maheshwari work on test-tube fertilisation & intra-ovarian pollination
  57. P. Maheshwari popularised the use of embryological character in
    taxonomy.
  58. P. Maheshwari & Ramdeo Misra was awarded by INSA (Indian
    National Science Academy).
  59. Sanjay Gandhi Award in Environment & Ecology is given to Ramdeo Misra.
  60. M.S. Swaminathan is awarded by Padma Bhushan.
  61. Lasker award given to Watson & Crick
  62. Balzen prize given to Ernst Mayr
  63. P.Maheshwari was honoured with Fellowship of Royal Society of
    London (FRS).
  64. Short-duration high-yielding varieties of rice (including scented
    Basmati) was developed by M.S. Swaminathan.
  65. M.S. Swaminathan initiated collaboration with Norman Borlaug
  66. M.S. Swaminathan is initiator of Lab-to-land & food security.
  67. M.S. Swaminathan is known for the development of the concept of
    crop cafeteria & crop scheduling.
  68. Good humor hypothesis was given by Hippocrates & Indian Ayurveda System {NCERT Biology Important points from neetexambooster.in }
  69. Good humor hypothesis was disproved by William Harvey.
  70. Blood circulation was discovered by – William Harvey
  71. Rivet popper hypothesis was given by Paul Ehrlich (Stanford Ecologist)
  72. Polyblend is formed by Ahmed Khan & his company.
  73. Ramesh Chandra Dagar is related to organic farming.
  74. Semi-dwarf wheat at ICWMI were developed by Norman Borlaug.
  75. Herbert Boyer observed that the restriction enzymes have the capability
    of cutting DNA strands in a particular fashion (1969).
  76. Stanley Cohen developed a method of removing plasmids from the cell
    & then reinserting them in other cells.
  77. First recombinant DNA was formed by Cohen & Boyer.
  78. Watson study on the “Effe ct of hard X-rays on bacteriophage
    multiplication” (1950) {NCERT Biology Important points from neetexambooster.in }
  79. Crick study on “X-ray diffraction: polypeptides & proteins” (1954)
  80. Double helical model of B-DNA was given by Watson & Crick (1953)
  81. Mendal proposed laws of inheritance in living organisms.
  82. Punnet square were developed by R.C. Punnet.
  83. Mendel’s results were rediscovered by de Vries, Correns & von
    Tschermark independently in 1900.
  84. Sutton & Boveri noted that the behaviour of chromosome was parallel
    to the behaviour of genes.
  85. Chromosomal theory of inheritance was given by Sutton & Boveri.
  86. Experimental verification of the chromosomal theory of inheritance
    was given by T.H. Morgan
  87. Sutton & Boveri argued that the pairing & separation of a pair of
    chromosomes would lead to the segregation of a pair of factors they
    carried. {NCERT Biology Important points from neetexambooster.in }
  88. Genetic map discovered by Alfred Sturtevent.
  89. Henking trace a specific nuclear structure (X-body) all through
    spermatogenesis in a few insects (1891).
  90. Down’s syndrome was first described by Langdon Down (1866)
  91. DNA (Nuclein) was first identified by Friedrich Meischer (1869).
  92. X-ray diffraction data produced by Wilkins & Franklin.
  93. Transforming principle was given by Griffith (1928).
  94. Biochemical characterisation of transforming principle was given by
    Avery, MacLeod & Mc Carty.
  95. Unequivoal proof that DNA is the genetic material came from the
    experiements of Hershey & Chase (1952).
  96. Replication scheme was given by Watson & Crick.
  97. Central dogma of biology was given by Crick.
  98. The experimental proof that DNA replicates semiconservatively was
    given in prokaryotes by Meselson & Stahl (1958).
  99. The experimental proof that DNA replicates semiconservatively was
    given in eukaryotes by Taylor (1958).
  100. George Gamow (a physicist) proposed that codon was triplet.
  101. Har Gobind Khorana synthesizes RNA molecules with defined
    combination of bases (homopolyers & copolymers).
  102. Nirenberg in cell-free system for protein synthesis finally helped the
    code to be deciphered.
  103. Polynucleotide phosphorylase is called Severo Ochoa enzyme
  104. Lac operon was given by Jacob & Monad.
  105. Automated DNA sequencers worked on the principle of a method
    developed by Frederick Sanger
  106. Frederick Sanger developed the method for determination of amino
    acid sequences in proteins.
  107. DNA fingerprinting technique was developed by Alec Jeffreys.
  108. Spontaneous generation theory was dismissed by Louis Pasteur.
  109. Life comes from pre-existing life it is told by Louis Pasteur.
  110. Oparin & Haldane proposed that the first form of life could have
    come from pre-existing non-living organic molecules.
  111. Darwin made a sea voyage in a sail ship (H.M.S. Beagle).
  112. Alfred Wallace worked in Malay Archipelago.
  113. ‘Use and disuse of organs’ theory of evolution was given by Lamarck
    (French Naturalist). {NCERT Biology Important points from neetexambooster.in }
  114. Malthus work on population.
  115. Hugo de Vries brought forth the idea of mutations.
  116. Hugo de Vries used the term saltation.
  117. Ramdeo Misra revered as the father of ecology in India.
  118. Ramdeo Misra formulated the first postgraduate course in ecology in
    India.
  119. “Competitive Exclusion principle” was given by Gause.
  120. Resource partitioning was given by Mac Arthur.
  121. Cost of ecosystem services was given by Robert Costanza.
  122. Term Biodiversity popularised by Edward Wilson (Sociobiologist)
  123. Species-area relationship was given by Alexander von Humboldt.
  124. The importance of species diversity to the ecosystem was given by
    David Tilman {NCERT Biology Important table from neetexambooster.in }

Dependency in NCERT Biology

  1. Algae are classified into 3 classes, depending on the type of pigment
    and the type of stored food.
  2. Kingdom fungi is divided into various classes based on morphology of
    the mycelium, mode of spore formation & fruiting bodies.
  3. Simple epithelium is divided into 3 types (squamous, cuboidal and
    columnar) on the basis of structural modifications of the cells.
  4. Pollination can be divided into 3 types (autogamy, geitonogamy &
    xenogamy) depending on the source of pollen.
  5. Respiratory quotient depends upon the type of respiratory substrate
    used during respiration.
  6. Neurons can be divided into 3 types (multipolar, bipolar & unipolar)
    based on the number of axon & dendrites.
  7. Muscles are of 3 types (skeletal, visceral & cardiac) based on their
    location. {NCERT Biology Important table from neetexambooster.in }
  8. Muscles are classified as red & white fibres based primarily on the
    amount of red coloured myoglobin pigment in them.
  9. Methods of locomotion performed by animals vary with their habitat &
    the demand of the situation.
  10. Nature of nitrogenous wastes formed & their excretion vary among
    animals, mainly depending on the habitat (availability of water).
  11. ABO blood grouping is based on the presence or absence of the 2
    surface antigens on the RBCs namely A & B.
  12. Mechanism of breathing vary among different groups of animals
    depending mainly on their habitats & level of organisation.
  13. Chromosomes can be classified into 4 types (metacentric, submetacentric, acrocentric & telocentric) based on the position of the
    centromere or 10 constriction.
  14. Enzymes are classifed into 6 classes based on the type of reactions
    they catalyse.
  15. Prophase – I is divided into 5 phases (Code : LZPDD Lata Zara Pani
    De Do) based on chromosomal behaviour.
  16. Membrane protein can be classified as intergral or peripheral
    depending on the ease of extraction.
  17. Succession of plants is called hydrarch or xerarch, based on the nautre
    of the habitat.
  18. Nature & properties of soil is dependent on the climate, weathering
    process, soil is transported or sedimentary & how soil development
    occured.
  19. Primary productivity depends on the : (i) Plant species inhabiting a
    particular area, (ii) Variety of environmental factors, (iii) Availability
    of nutrients and (iv) Photosynthetic capacity of plants.
  20. The rate of decomposition is controlled by chemical composition of
    detritus & climatic factors (temperature & soil moisture)
  21. Organism occupy a specific place in the food chain or a trophic level,
    based on source of their nutrition or food.
  22. In 20 succession the species that invade depends on the : (i) Condition of soil, (ii) Availability of water, (iii) Environment and (iv) Seed or other propagules present. {NCERT Biology Important table from neetexambooster.in }
  23. In dairy form, milk yield is primarily dependent on the quality of
    breeds in the farm. {NCERT Biology Important pointsfrom neetexambooster.in }
  24. Different type of alcoholic drinks are obtained depending on the :
    (i) Type of raw material used for fermentation.
    (ii) Type of processing (with or without distillation).
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Cities and Countries in NCERT

  1. Famous Royal Botanical Garden : Kew (England)
  2. Indian Botanical Garden : Howrah (India)
  3. National Botanical Research Institute (NBRI) : Lucknow
  4. Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI) : Lucknow
  5. Strobilanthus kunthiana found in : Kerela, Karnataka & Tamilnadu.
  6. Lupinus arcticus (Lupine) excavated from : Arctic Tundra
  7. Phoenix dactylifera (Date palm) excavated from : King Herod’s Palace
    near Dead Sea. {NCERT Biology Important points from neetexambooster.in }
  8. Sah iwal Cow bre d in : Pun j ab (through artificial selection &
    domestication)
  9. Hisardale (Sheep) develop in : Punjab (by cross -breeding)
  10. Oparin : Russia
  11. Haldane : England
  12. S.L. Miller : America
  13. Wallace Worked in : Malay Archipelago
  14. Observation supporting evolution by natural selection comes from :
    England {NCERT Biology Important table from neetexambooster.in }
  15. Darwin worked in : Galapagos Islands
  16. Coelcanth (fish) caught in : South Africa (1938).
  17. Few fossils of man-like bones have been discovered in : Ethiopia & Tanzania.
  18. About 3-4 mya man – like primate walked in : Eastern Africa
  19. Australopithecus lived in : East African Grasslands.
  20. Fossils of Homo erectus discovered in : Java (1891)
  21. Neanderthal man lived in : Near East & Central Asia
  22. Homo sapiens Arose in : Africa
  23. Erythroxylum coca is native of : South America
  24. > 70% live stock population is in : India & China
  25. Saccharum barberi grown in : North India
  26. Saccharum officinarum grown in : South India
  27. IARI : New Delhi
  28. IRRI : Phillippines
  29. ICWMI : Mexico {NCERT Biology Important points from neetexambooster.in }
  30. Taichung Native-I develops from : Taiwan.
  31. IR-8 developed from : IRRI, Philippines
  32. Borlaug developed semi-dwarf wheat at : ICWMI, Mexico.
  33. Jaya & Ratna developed in : India
  34. Toddy is used in : South India
  35. Penicillin was used during world war-II to treat : American soldiers
  36. Eli lily is an : American company.
  37. A company which got patent rights on basmati rice : American Company
  38. Mango tree do not & can not grow in : Canada & Germany
  39. Snow leopard are not found in : Kerela forests
  40. High altitude places (>3500 m) : Rohtang pass near Manali &
    Mansarovar (in China occupied Tibet)
  41. In 1920’s prickly pear cactus introduced in : Australia
  42. Visiting flamingoes & resident fishes compete in : South American
    lakes {NCERT Biology Important table from neetexambooster.in }
  43. Abingdon tortoise were found in : Galapagos Island.
  44. Barnacle Balanus & Chathamalus found in : Rocky Sea Coasts of
    Scotland
  45. Rauwolfia vomitoria growing in : Himalaya
  46. Amazonian Rain Forest found in : South America
  47. Alexander von Humboldt explored in : South America Jungles
  48. Dodo extinct from : Mauritius.
  49. Quagga extinct from : Africa
  50. Thylacine extinct from : Australia
  51. Stellar’s sea cow extinct from : Russia
  52. Lake Victoria found in : East Africa
  53. Clarius geriepinus is African catfish
  54. Earth Summit held in : Rio de Janeiro
  55. World Summit held in : Johannesburg (South Africa)
  56. Montreal Protocol held in : Montreal (Canada)
  57. Khasi & Jaintia hills in : Meghalaya
  58. Aravalli hills in : Rajasthan
  59. Western Ghat regions are found in : Karnataka & Maharastra
  60. Sarguja, Chanda & Bastar areas are found in : Madhya Pradesh
  61. Ahmed Khan belongs to : Bangalore
  62. Ramesh Chandra Dagar related to : Sonipat (Haryana)
  63. Ozone hole is particularly marked over : Antarctic region
  64. Slash & Burn cultivation or Jhum cultivation done in : North-eastern
    states of India.
  65. Amrita Devi Bishnoi related to : Jodhpur (Rajasthan)
  66. Chipko movement started in : Garhwal Himalayas
  67. Keolado National Park : Bharatpur (Rajasthan)
  68. Kangaroo rat found in : North American desert.

Years and Contribution of Scientists

  1. 1770 : Joseph Priestley – Essential role of air in growth of green plant.
  2. 1774 : Joseph Priestley – Discovered O2
  3. 1831 : Robert Brown – Ist discovered and described nucleus.
  4. 1838 : Schleiden (German Botanist) – Work on plants.
  5. 1839 : Schwann(British Zoologist) – Work on both plants & animals.
  6. 1855 : Rudolf Virchow – Omnis cellula-e-cellula (cells arises from
    pre-existing cells).
  7. Life originate from pre-existing life : Pasteur (Yeast).
  8. Life originate from non-living (decaying & rotting matter) : Spontaneous
    generation.
  9. Life originate from pre-existing non-living organic molecules (RNA,
    Protein)- Oparin (Russia) & Haldane (England)- Chemical Evolution.
  10. 1856 – 1863 : Mendal experiment on garden pea. (7 years)
  11. 1860 : Julius von Sachs – Developed hydroponics.
  12. 1865 : Mendal published his work.
  13. 1866 : Langdon Down – Down’s syndrome.
  14. 1869 : Friedrich Meischer – Ist identified DNA and named it nuclein.
  15. 1891 : Henking – Discovered X-body.
  16. 1891 : Fossil discovered in Java – Homo erectus.
  17. 1892 : Ivanowsky – Discovered virus.
  18. 1898 : Beijerinek – Contagium vivum fluidum (infectious living fluid).
  19. 1898 : Camillo Golgi – Discovered (observed) G.B.
  20. 1900 : de Vries, Corre ns and von Tsche rmak inde pende ntly
    rediscovered Mendel’s results.
  21. 1902 : Chromosome movement during meiosis has been worked out.
  22. 1905 : Law of limiting factor (Blackmann).
  23. 1928 : Fredrick Griffith – Transforming experiment with Streptococcus
    pneumoniae (Diplococcus).
  24. 1935 : Stanley – Crystallised viruses.
  25. 1937 : Ramde o Misra obtained Ph.D. in Ecology from Lee ds
    university (U.K.).
  26. 1938 : Coelocanth fish caught in South Africa.
  27. 1945 : Fleming, Chain & Florey – Awarded Nobel prize.
  28. 1950 : Watson obtained Ph.D. on a study of the effect of hard X-rays
    on bacteriophage multiplication.
  29. 1951 : Family planning programme started in India.
  30. 1952 : Hershey & Chase-experiment on bacteriophage or Bacterial virus
    gives unequivocal proof that DNA is the genetic material.
  31. 1953 : Miller experiment – Methane, ammonia, hydrogen & water
    vapour.
  32. 1953 : Watson & Crick – Double helical structure of B-DNA &
    replication scheme.
  33. 1953 : Palade : Discovered ribosome.
  34. 1954 : Ramachandran – Triple helical model of collagen, published
    in Nature.
  35. 1954 : Crick complete d Ph.D. on a thesis “X-rays diffraction :
    polypeptides and proteins.
  36. 1958 : Meselson & Stahl – Work on E.coli proves semiconservative
    replication of DNA in prokaryotes.
  37. 1958 : Taylor – Work on Vicia faba proves semiconservative replication
    of DNA in eukaryotes.
  38. 1960 : Katherine Esau – Published “Anatomy of Seed Plants.”
  39. 1961 : Melvin Calvin – Nobel Prize.
  40. 1962 : Watson, Crick and Wilikins – Nobel Prize.
  41. 1963 : Wheat varieties (Sonalika & Kalyan sona) introduced.
  42. 1963 : Two enzyme responsible for restricting growth of bacteriophage
    in E.coli were isolated.
  43. 1966 : Derivative of IR-8 & Taichung native-I introduced.
  44. 1969 : Whittaker – Five kingdom classification.
  45. 1971 : Govt. of India legalized MTP.
  46. 1971 : Diener- Discovered Viroid(free RNA without capsid).
  47. 1972 : Singer & Nicolson – Fluid mosaic model.
  48. 1972 : Stanley Cohen & Herbert Boyer – Formed Ist recombinant DNA.
  49. 1972 : Establishme nt of NCEPC – National Committe e for
    Environmental Planning & Coordination.
  50. 1974 : Water act.
  51. 1980 : Joint forest management, (JFM).
  52. 1981 : AIDS was Ist reported.
  53. 1981 : Air act.
  54. 1983 : Eli Lily (An American company) produces insulin in E.coli by
    recombinant DNA technology.
  55. 1984 : Establishment of MOEF : Ministry of Environment & Forest.
  56. 1986 : Environment Protection Act.
  57. 1987 : Montreal protocol. Held in Montreal, Canada.
  58. 1987 : Air act amended to include noise as an air pollutant.
  59. 1988 : National Forest Policy.
  60. 1989 : Montreal protocol effective.
  61. 1990 : Ist clinical gene therepy.
  62. 1990 : HGP launched.
  63. 1992 : The Earth summit : Rio de Janeiro.
  64. 1997 : Ist transgenic cow- Rosie. It produces human protein enriched
    milk (2.4 grams per litre). The milk contain the human alphalactalbumin
  65. 1997 : An American company got patent rights on Basmati Rice.
  66. 1997 : Kyoto protocol : Held in Kyoto(Japan).
  67. 2002 : World summit. Held in Johannesburg (South Africa).
  68. 2002 : All buses of Delhi were converted by CNG.
  69. 2005 : Nobel prize of chemistry given to ‘Green chemists’ Chauvin,
    Grubbs & Schrock

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