Solutions important points – Solutions are homogeneous mixtures of solvents and solutes. They can be classified into solid, liquid, or gaseous solutions. Concentration is the amount of solute in a given quantity of the solution, and molarity (M) and molality (m) are commonly used units for measuring concentration. Colligative properties of solutions, such as vapor pressure lowering, boiling point elevation, freezing point depression, and osmotic pressure, depend on the concentration of solute particles. Raoult’s law relates vapour pressure of a solvent to its mole fraction in solution. Van’t Hoff factor measures the extent of solute dissociation.
Osmosis is a process of movement of solvent through a semipermeable membrane, and the osmotic pressure is the pressure required to stop the movement. Henry’s law states that the solubility of a gas in a liquid is proportional to its partial pressure. Solubility depends on temperature and can increase for solids and decrease for gases with increasing temperature.
The common-ion effect reduces solubility of slightly soluble salts. pH is a measure of acidity or alkalinity, and buffer solutions resist changes in pH. The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is an equation that calculates the pH of a buffer solution based on the concentrations of the conjugate acid and base.
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NCERT Chemistry Class 12 Chapter 2 Solutions 25 important points-
There are 25 important points on solution –
- Solutions are the homogeneous mixtures of two or more substances.
- The substance present in a larger quantity in a solution is called the solvent, while the substance present in a smaller quantity is called the solute.
- Solutions can be classified into solid solutions, liquid solutions, and gaseous solutions, depending on the physical state of the solvent.
- The concentration of a solution refers to the amount of solute present in a given quantity of the solution.
- Molarity (M) is a commonly used unit of concentration, defined as the number of moles of solute per liter of solution.
- Molality (m) is another unit of concentration that expresses the number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
- Colligative properties of solutions depend on the concentration of solute particles rather than the nature of the solute.
- The colligative properties include lowering of vapor pressure, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, and osmotic pressure.
- Raoult’s law states that the vapor pressure of a solvent above a solution is directly proportional to the mole fraction of the solvent in the solution.
- When a non-volatile solute is dissolved in a solvent, the vapor pressure of the solvent decreases, leading to a lower boiling point and higher freezing point of the solution compared to the pure solvent.
11.. Van’t Hoff factor (i) is a measure of the number of particles into which a solute dissociates in a solution.
- Colligative properties can be calculated using various formulas, such as ΔTb = Kbm and ΔTf = Kfm, where ΔTb and ΔTf are the changes in boiling point and freezing point, respectively, K is the molal constant, and m is the molality.
- Osmosis is movement of the solvent molecules through a semipermeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
- Osmotic pressure is the pressure required to stop the flow of solvent molecules through a semipermeable membrane in osmosis.
- Osmotic pressure can be calculated using the formula π = iMRT, where π is the osmotic pressure, i is the van’t Hoff factor, M is molarity, R is ideal gas constant, and T is temperature in Kelvin.
- Henry’s law states that solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to partial pressure of the gas above the liquid.
- Solubility is the maximum amount of the solute that can be dissolved in a given amount of a solvent at a specified temperature and pressure.
- The solubility of most solid solutes increases with an increase in temperature, while the solubility of most gas solutes decreases with an increase in temperature.
- The common-ion effect occurs when the addition of a common ion to a solution decreases the solubility of a slightly soluble salt.
- The pH of a solution is a measure of its acidity or alkalinity and is defined as the negative logarithm of the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in the solution.
- Buffer solutions are the solutions that resist changes in the pH when small amounts of acid or base are added to them.
- Buffers are the substances that are typically composed of a weak acid and its conjugate base or a weak base and its conjugate acid.
- The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is used to calculate the pH of a buffer solution and is given by pH = pKa + log ([A-]/[HA]), where pKa is the logarithmic form of the acid dissociation constant and [A-] and [HA] are the concentrations of the conjugate.
- The common-ion effect reduces the solubility of slightly soluble salts.
- pH is a measure of acidity or alkalinity, and buffer solutions resist changes in pH.
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