Polymers important points – Polymers are the large molecules made up of repeating units called monomers. They can be classified into plastics, fibers, and the elastomers. Plastics are versatile and moldable, used in everyday products. Fibers have the high strength and are used in textiles. Elastomers can undergo large deformations and return to their original shape.
Polymers can be natural or synthetic, with synthetic polymers being more commonly used. Properties of the polymers depends on their structure and composition. They can be amorphous or crystalline, and their molecular weight affects their properties. Polymers can be blended or cross-linked to enhance the specific characteristics. Copolymers combine different monomers. Biodegradable polymers break down naturally. Recycling is crucial for reducing the plastic waste. Polymers are processed using the various techniques. Additives can modify their properties.
Polymers find the applications in packaging, automotive, healthcare, and more. They offer lightweight, corrosion resistance, and insulation properties. Ongoing research focuses on developing the new materials, sustainable alternatives, and recycling technologies.
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NCERT Chemistry Class 12 Chapter 15 – 25 Polymers important points
There are 25 important points on Polymers –
- Polymers are the large molecules composed of repeating subunits called monomers.
- Monomers are the small molecules that can chemically bond together to form a polymer chain.
- The process of monomers joining together to form a polymer is called as polymerization.
- Polymers can be classified into three main categories named as plastics, fibers, and elastomers.
- Plastics are the polymers that can be molded into various shapes and forms. They are widely used in everyday products such as the bottles, containers, and packaging materials.
- Fibers are the polymers that have a high tensile strength and are commonly used to make textiles, including the clothing, carpets, and ropes.
- Elastomers are the polymers that can undergo large deformations and then return to their original shape. They are used in applications such as the rubber bands, tires, and seals.
- Polymers can be either natural or synthetic. Natural polymers are found in the nature and includes substances like cellulose, proteins, and natural rubber.
- Synthetic polymers are the artificially created through chemical processes.
- Synthetic polymers are more widely used than the natural polymers due to their versatility, ease of manufacturing, and cost-effectiveness.
- Common synthetic polymers includes polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polystyrene, and polyethylene terephthalate (PET).
- The properties of the polymers can vary greatly depending on their chemical structure and composition.
- Some of the polymers are amorphous, meaning they have a random arrangement of polymer chains, while others are crystalline, with a highly ordered arrangement.
- The molecular weight of a polymer refers to size of its chains, which can affect its mechanical properties.
- Polymers can have a wide range of physical and chemical properties, including the flexibility, strength, transparency, thermal stability, electrical conductivity, and chemical resistance.
- Polymer blends or composites can be created by combining different types of polymers or adding the other substances, such as fillers or reinforcements, to enhance certain properties.
- Cross-linking is a process that can be used to strengthen the polymers by creating chemical bonds between polymer chains.
- Copolymers are the polymers composed of two or more different types of monomers.
19.They can exhibit a combination of properties from each monomer.
- Biodegradable polymers are designed to break down naturally in environment, reducing their impact on waste accumulation.
- Polymer recycling is an important process for reducing the plastic waste and promoting sustainability.
- Polymers can be processed using various techniques, including the extrusion, injection molding, blow molding, and casting, to create the products of different shapes and sizes.
- Polymer additives, such as plasticizers, stabilizers, and flame retardants, can be used to modify properties of polymers or enhance their performance.
- Polymers have a wide range of applications in the industries such as packaging, automotive, construction, healthcare, electronics, and textiles.
- Polymer-based materials are often chosen for their lightweight nature, corrosion resistance, insulation properties, and ease of processing.
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