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p- block elements important points

p- block elements important points : The p-block elements are located in the groups 13 to 18 of the periodic table and have their outermost electrons in the p-orbital. They exhibit a wide range of chemical properties due to availability of valence electrons.

The electronic configuration of p-block elements is given as ns2np1-6. The physical and the chemical properties of these elements vary across the period and down the group.

Boron is a metalloid, carbon can form a wide range of different compounds, nitrogen is essential for life, and the noble gases are chemically inert.

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p- block elements important points

NCERT Chemistry Class 11 Chapter 11- p- block elements important points 25 Important Points

There are 25 important points on p- block elements –

  1. The p-block elements are those elements in periodic table whose outermost electrons are in the p-orbital.
  2. The p-block elements includes the elements in groups 13 to 18 of the periodic table.
  3. Group 13 elements includes- boron (B), aluminum (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In), and thallium (Tl).
  4. Group 14 elements includes – carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), and lead (Pb).
  5. Group 15 elements includes- nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), and bismuth (Bi).
  6. Group 16 elements includes- oxygen (O), sulfur (S), selenium (Se), tellurium (Te), and polonium (Po).

7..Group 17 elements are known as the halogens and include fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).

  1. Group 18 elements are known as the noble gases and include helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe), and radon (Rn).

9..The p-block elements shows a wide range of chemical properties due to availability of valence electrons.

  1. The electronic configuration of the p-block elements is ns2np1-6.
  2. Group 13 elements have the three valence electrons and tend to lose them to form a +3 oxidation state.
  3. Group 14 elements have the four valence electrons and can form covalent or ionic compounds.
  4. Group 15 elements have the five valence electrons and tend to gain three electrons to form a -3 oxidation state.
  5. Group 16 elements have the six valence electrons and can gain two electrons to form a -2 oxidation state or form covalent compounds.
  6. Group 17 elements have the seven valence electrons and tend to gain one electron to form a -1 oxidation state.
  7. Group 18 elements have the eight valence electrons and are chemically inert due to the stable octet configuration.
  8. The atomic radii of the p-block elements increase down the group due to an increase in the number of shells.
  9. The ionization energies of the p-block elements increase across the period due to an increase in the effective nuclear charge.
  10. The electronegativity of the p-block elements generally increases across the period and decreases down the group.
  11. The melting and boiling points of the p-block elements generally increase down the group.
  12. The metallic character of the p-block elements generally decreases across the period and increases down the group.
  13. Boron is a metalloid which exhibits both metallic and non-metallic properties.
  14. Carbon can form a wide range of compounds due to its ability to form a strong covalent bond.
  15. Nitrogen is an essential element for the life and is a major component of the Earth’s atmosphere.
  16. The noble gases are chemically inert and have low boiling points, making them useful in the applications such as lighting and refrigeration.

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