Electrochemistry Important Points – Electrochemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity and chemical reactions. It involves the conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy and vice versa through electrochemical reactions. An electrochemical cell consists of two electrodes (anode and cathode) immersed in an electrolyte.
Positive ions migrate towards the cathode, while negative ions migrate towards the anode.The flow of electrons between the electrodes through an external circuit creates an electric current. The potential difference between the anode and cathode is called the cell potential or electromotive force (EMF). The standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) is used as a reference to measure the standard electrode potential of other electrodes. The Nernst equation is used to calculate the cell potential, considering factors such as temperature and concentrations. The standard cell potential (E°cell) is potential difference when the concentrations are 1 M and pressure is 1 atm. Galvanic cells are the cells that produce electrical energy through spontaneous redox reactions, while the electrolytic cells use electrical energy to drive non-spontaneous redox reactions.
Faraday’s laws of electrolysis relate the amount of substance deposited or liberated during electrolysis to the quantity of electricity passed through the cell. Corrosion, such as rusting of iron, is an electrochemical process that can be prevented through various methods. Fuel cells can convert energy of a chemical reaction into electrical energy.
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NCERT Chemistry Class 12 Chapter 3 – Electrochemistry 25 Important Points–
There are 25 important points on electrochemistry –
- Electrochemistry is branch of chemistry that deals with relationship between electricity and chemical reactions.
- The process of converting chemical energy into electrical energy or vice versa is called electrochemical reactions.
- An electrochemical cell consists of two electrodes, an anode (where oxidation occurs) and a cathode (where reduction occurs), immersed in an electrolyte.
- The electrode where the process of oxidation occurs is called the anode, while the electrode where the reduction occurs is called the cathode.
- The movement of positive ions towards the cathode and negative ions towards the anode is known as migration of ions.
- The flow of electrons from the anode to the cathode through an external circuit is known as the flow of current.
- The potential difference developed between the anode and cathode of an electrochemical cell is called the cell potential or electromotive force (EMF).
- The standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) is used as a reference electrode to measure the standard electrode potential of other electrodes.
- The standard electrode potential (E°) is the measure of the tendency of an electrode to lose or gain electrons.
- The cell potential of an electrochemical cell can be calculated using the Nernst equation: E = E° – (RT/nF)ln(Q), where E is the cell potential, E° is the standard electrode potential, R is the gas constant, T is the temperature, n is the number of electrons transferred, F is Faraday’s constant, and Q is the reaction quotient.
- The standard cell potential (E°cell) is the potential difference between the two electrodes of a cell when the concentrations of all the species are 1 M and the pressure is 1 atm.
- The standard cell potential can be used to determine the feasibility of a redox reaction. If E°cell is positive, the reaction is spontaneous (exothermic), while if E°cell is negative, the reaction is non-spontaneous (endothermic).
- The difference between the standard electrode potentials of two half-cells is a measure of the driving force for the reaction.
- Galvanic cells, also known as the voltaic cells, are electrochemical cells in which a spontaneous redox reaction produces the electrical energy.
- Electrolytic cells are electrochemical cells in which electrical energy is used to drive a non-spontaneous redox reaction.
16..Faraday’s laws of electrolysis state that the amount of substance deposited or liberated at an electrode during electrolysis is directly proportional to the quantity of electricity passed through the cell.
- Faraday’s first law of electrolysis can be expressed as m = (Z × I × t) / (n × F), where m is the mass of the substance, Z is the electrochemical equivalent, I is the current, t is the time, n is the number of electrons transferred, and F is Faraday’s constant.
- Faraday’s second law of electrolysis states that the masses of different substances liberated by the same quantity of electricity are proportional to their chemical equivalent masses.
- Overvoltage is the additional potential required to overcome the resistance offered by the electrolyte or electrode surface during the electrolysis process.
- Corrosion is an electrochemical process in which a metal is gradually destroyed by chemical or electrochemical reactions with its environment.
- Rusting of iron is a common example of corrosion, which occurs in the presence of oxygen and water.
- Corrosion can be prevented by methods such as galvanization, painting, and using sacrificial anodes.
- Fuel cells are devices that convert the energy of a chemical reaction into electrical.
- Positive ions migrate towards the cathode, while negative ions migrate towards the anode.
- The Nernst equation is used to calculate the cell potential, considering factors such as temperature and concentrations.
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