Chemical bonding and molecular structure important points: Chemical bonding and molecular structure are the fundamental concepts in chemistry that explain how the atoms comes together to form molecules and compounds.
Atoms can bond together through two types of bonding: covalent bonding and ionic bonding. In covalent bonding, the atoms share electrons to form molecules, while in ionic bonding, atoms transfers the electrons to form ions that attract each other due to their opposite charges. The resulting molecular structure is determined by arrangement of atoms and the nature of the bonds between them. Different molecular structures can exhibit different properties like polarity, solubility, and reactivity.
Understanding the chemical bonding and molecular structure is crucial in many fields, including the materials science, drug discovery, and environmental science.
Chemical bonding and molecular structure important points:, Chemical bonding and molecular structure important points:, Chemical bonding and molecular structure important points:, Chemical bonding and molecular structure important points:, Chemical bonding and molecular structure important points:, Chemical bonding and molecular structure important points:
NCERT Chemistry Class 11 Chapter 4 – Chemical bonding and molecular structure 25 Important Points
There are 25 important points on chemical bonding and molecular structure:
- Chemical bonding is defined as the force that holds two or more atoms together in a molecule.
- Valence electrons are electrons present in the outermost shell of an atom.
- The octet rule states that the atoms tend to gain, lose or share electrons in order to achieve a stable configuration of 8 valence electrons.
- Ionic bonds are formed between the atoms that have a large difference in electronegativity. One atom loses electrons while the other gains them.
- Covalent bonds are formed between the atoms that share electrons.
- Electronegativity is defined as the tendency of an atom to attract electrons towards itself in a covalent bond.
- Non-polar covalent bonds are formed between the atoms that have similar electronegativity.
- Polar covalent bonds are formed between the atoms that have different electronegativity.
- Dipole moment is the product of magnitude of the charge and the distance between the charges in a polar covalent bond.
- Resonance is a phenomenon in which a molecule can have many equivalent Lewis structures.
- Formal charge is the difference between number of valence electrons in an isolated atom and the number of electrons assigned to that atom in a Lewis structure.
- VSEPR theory is used to predict shape of a molecule based on the number of electron pairs around central atom.
- The valence bond theory explains the chemical bonding in terms of overlapping of atomic orbitals.
- Hybridization is defined as the mixing of atomic orbitals to form hybrid orbitals that are used in bonding.
- Sigma bonds are formed by overlapping of two atomic orbitals along the internuclear axis.
- Pi bonds are formed by overlapping of two atomic orbitals above and below the internuclear axis.
- The strength of covalent bond is measured by its bond dissociation energy.
- Bond length is defined as the average distance between the nuclei of two bonded atoms.
- Bond angles are angles between the orbitals containing bonding electrons.
- Molecular orbital theory is used to explain formation of molecular orbitals by the combination of atomic orbitals.
- Bond order is number of chemical bonds between a pair of atoms.
- Paramagnetic substances gets attracted by a magnetic field while diamagnetic substances are not.
- Hydrogen bonding is a special type of dipole-dipole interaction between the hydrogen and a highly electronegative atom such as oxygen, nitrogen or fluorine.
- Van der Waals forces are the weak intermolecular forces that results from the temporary dipoles induced by the motion of electrons.
- The melting and the boiling points of a substance depend on the strength of its intermolecular forces.
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