Sexual Reproduction In Flowering Plants Important Points For NEET : Sexual reproduction in flowering plants, also known as the angiosperms, involves production of the male and female gametes, which unites during the process of fertilization to form a zygote that develops into an embryo. This process occurs within flowers of the plant.
Male reproduction in the flowering plants occurs within anthers, which produces pollen grains containing male gametes. The pollen is transferred to stigma of the female reproductive structure, the pistil, either by the wind or by the pollinators such as bees or butterflies.
The female gametes are produced in ovules, which are located in ovary at the base of the pistil. Once pollen grain reaches stigma, it germinates and grows a pollen tube that extends down style to the ovary, where it fertilizes with the ovule.
After the process of fertilization, ovule develops into a seed and ovary develops into a fruit that surrounds seed. This fruit serves as a means of dispersal for seed, allowing it to be transported to new locations and potentially germinate into a new plant.
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants results in the genetic diversity, as each offspring inherits the genetic material from both the parents. This diversity allows the plants to adapt to the changing environments and increases their chances of the survival.
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NCERT biology class 12 chapter 2 – 25 important points on sexual reproduction in flowering plants
There are 25 important points on sexual reproduction in flowering plants:
1. Sexual reproduction in flowering plants involves the fusion of the male and the female gametes to form a zygote.
2. The male gamete is produced in the anther of the flower, while the female gamete is produced in the ovule.
3. The anther contains the microsporangia, which produces microspores that develops into pollen grains.
4. The ovule contains the megasporangia, which produces megaspores that develops into female gametophyte.
5. The female gametophyte contains egg cell and the two polar nuclei.
6. The male gametophyte, which is pollen grain, contains the two haploid cells: the generative cell and the tube cell.
7. The generative cell divides to produce the two sperm cells.
8. Pollination is a process of transfer of the pollen from anther to the stigma of a flower.
9. Cross-pollination involves transfer of the pollen from one flower to the another flower on a different plant.
10. Self-pollination involves transfer of the pollen from anther to the stigma of same flower or to another flower on the same plant.
11. Double fertilization is a unique feature of the flowering plants where one sperm cell fertilizes with the egg cell to form zygote, while the other sperm cell fuses with two polar nuclei to form the endosperm.
12. The endosperm is a nutritive tissue that provides the nourishment to the developing embryo.
13. The zygote develops into embryo, which is enclosed in a protective structure called seed.
14. The ovary of flower develops into fruit, which contains the seeds.
15. Fruit development is triggered by the fertilization and involves enlargement and maturation of the ovary.
16. Fruits serves as a means of seed dispersal.
17. Seeds can be dispersed by the various methods such as wind, water, animals, or humans.
18. After the seed dispersal, seeds can remain dormant for long periods until the conditions are favorable for germination.
19. Germination is basically a process by which a seed begins to grow into a new plant.
20. During the process of germination, the embryo resumes growth and the seed coat splits open.
21. The emerging root of new plant anchors it to the ground and absorbs the water and nutrients from the soil.
22. The emerging shoot of new plant grows towards light and begins to photosynthesize.
23. The seedling eventually develops into a mature plant that can produce the flowers and the seeds.
24. Sexual reproduction in the flowering plants ensures the genetic diversity within a population, which is essential for the adaptation and evolution.
25. Plant breeding is a human-controlled form of the sexual reproduction in which desirable traits are selected and propagated through the successive generations of plants.
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