Reproductive Health Class 12:- Reproductive health is complete physical, mental, and social well-being of the individual. It deals with reproductive functions and the processes at all the stages of the life. It is central feature of development of the human beings. It is of the special concern for the women during their reproductive years. Even the men have general reproductive health issues and needs, but to a lesser extent compared to the women.
Chapter 4 Reproductive Health Class 12
Reproductive Health Class 12 – Very Short Answer Types Questions-
Q.1. Define Reproductive Health?
A.1. Reproductive health refers to physical, mental and social well-being of an individual in all the matters related to the reproductive system, its functions and it’s processes.
Q.2. Discuss on the child health care and reproductive programmes run by government for improvement of an individual’s Reproductive Health.
A.2. Reproductive and child healthcare programme was started in October 1997. It was established with objective of reducing maternal, infant and child mortality rates. It was established to make the people aware of healthy reproductive practices, the benefits of the family planning, and the use of the contraceptives.
Q.3. Write the methods to check present population growth rate in India.
A.3. The present population rate in India can be checked by following ways:
- By promoting use of the contraceptives.
- By providing the complete knowledge about benefits of the family planning.
- Couples with the small families should be provided with the incentives.
- By making the people aware of cons of the uncontrolled population rise.
- By increasing age of the marriage for boys and girls to 21 years and 18 years respectively.
Q.4. Define sexually transmitted diseases? Why are they considered self-invited diseases?
A.4. The Sexually transmitted diseases are those that are transmitted through the sexual intercourse.
Example- HIV, Gonorrhea are some of sexually transmitted diseases. These are said to self-invited because people fall prey to these diseases by-
- Having sex with the unknown or multiple partners.
- Not using the protection during the coitus.
- Ignoring symptoms of diseases.
Q.5. Which reproduction related aspects should be taught at school level?
A.5. Following reproduction related aspects should be taught at school level:
- Proper information should be provided regarding reproductive organs, hygienic sexual practices, and sexually transmitted diseases,STD’s.
- Problems arising due to population increase, sex abuse, etc.
- Educating them about the birth control measures.
- Postnatal care of the mother and child, the significance of the breastfeeding, care during the pregnancy.
Q.6. Write the main objective of “Assisted Reproductive Technology” programmes?
A.6. Main aim of the “Assisted Reproductive Technology” programme is to assist infertile couples with the special techniques such as the in-vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, etc., that can help them bear the child.
Q.7. How does estrogen-progesterone combination act as a contraceptive measure?
A.7. Estrogen-progesterone combination is used in contraceptive pills to inhibit ovulation and implantation. They are taken by the females in form of the injections or as the implants below epidermal layer. These are equally effective as pills but induce the longer effects.
Q.8. Why should strict conditions be followed during medical termination of the pregnancy procedures?
A.8. The strict conditions should be followed,are as follows –
- To prevent the illegal female foeticide.
- To protect the individuals from the fatal MTP practices.
Q.9. Explain why are the males whose testes fail to descend to scrotum considered as infertile?
A.9. Testes are temperature sensitive. If they fail to descend in scrotum before the puberty, they will not the produce sperms. Hence male will be infertile.
Reproductive Health Class 12 Quiz
Q.10. ” The Lactational amenorrhea is a contraceptive method”.List the two advantages.
A.10. The following are the two advantages:
- A breastfeeding mother does not ovulate. So,chances of the conceiving are equal to none.
- No pills will be required as a birth control measure ,hence, no side-effects are there.
Q.11.Write the components of the Reproductive Health?
A.11.The three essential components of the reproductive health are:
- The Sexual health.
- The Family planning.
- The Maternal health.
Q.12. Define Amniocentesis Test?
A.12. Medical test or a procedure mainly used for determination of the sex of an unborn baby through analyzing chromosomal content of amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus is known as the amniocentesis test.
Q.13.Write the common health issues associated with the reproductive health?
A.13. Most common health issues associated with the reproductive health are:
- Over population.
- Sexually Transmitted Diseases,STD’s.
- Poor health of both mother and her baby.
- Early marriages before attaining the puberty.
- An increased mortality rate of both the mother and the Infants.
Q.14.Write the significance of Reproductive Health?
A.14. According to the WHO, World Health Organisation, the Reproductive health refers to physical, mental and social well-being of an individual in all matters related to reproductive system, its functions and processes.
Listed below are significance or the main objectives behind reproductive health.
- It educates every youth about the sexual and the reproductive health.
- It creates the awareness among the adolescents about the safe sexual practices.
- It helps in preventing the sexually transmitted infections, including the HIV/AIDS.
- It protects both mother and child from the infectious diseases and to deliver a healthy baby.
- It provides the complete knowledge about early pregnancy, infertility, birth control methods, pregnancy, post-childbirth care of baby and the mother, etc.
Q.15.Write the significance of the Reproductive Health?
A.15. The Sexually transmitted diseases, STDs are the infectious diseases, which are transmitted through the sexual contact with an infected person.
For example -AIDS, Gonorrhea, genital herpes, hepatitis-B, syphilis, and warts etc.
Reproductive Health Class 12 – Short Answer Types Questions
Q.1. Write some important steps for improving reproductive health standards in India.
A.1. The following steps can be taken to improve reproductive health standards in India:
- Educating people about the birth control measures, pre-natal and the postnatal care of the mother, significance of breastfeeding.
- Educating them about the safe and the hygienic sexual practices and sexually transmitted diseases,STDs.
- Educating school going children about sex-related aspects.
- A legal ban on checking the gender of the foetus.
- Create the awareness about the sex-abuse and drawbacks of the population explosion.
- Proper infrastructural and professional facilities to attain reproductive health standards.
Q.2. Female gametes are transferred to fallopian tube in GIFT procedure. Is it possible to transfer gametes to the uterus?
A.2. It is not possible to transfer gametes to the uterus. This is because the gametes cannot survive in environment of the uterus. They will be degenerated or phagocytosed if transferred directly into uterus.
Q.3. Why are the non-medicated methods not as effective as copper ions releasing Intra-Uterine Devices?
A.3. Non-medicated methods are less effective than copper ions releasing the IUDs because:
- Copper ions reduce fertilizing capacity and motility of sperms.
- It phagocytosis sperms inside uterus.
- It is safe, cost-effective, and the convenient methods of the contraception.
- Breastfeeding can use it with no fear of any the side-effects.
Q.4. Write the factors responsible for population explosion in India?
A.4. Following factors are responsible for population explosion in India:
- Death rate decline.
- The desire to have a male child.
- Increase in young population of reproductive age.
- Reduction in infant and the maternal mortality rates.
- Rural people are not aware of consequences of increasing population.
Q.5. Explain in brief in-vitro fertilization and the embryo transfer.
A.5. In IVF and ET techniques, male and female gametes are made to fertilize in laboratory environment. Zygote thus formed is introduced in uterus of acceptor during secretory phase. The eight-celled embryos or early embryos are transferred to fallopian tube while embryos more than eight cells are transferred to uterus.
Q.6. Write the benefits of the natural contraceptive methods over the artificial methods?
A.6. The benefits are-
- Natural methods of the contraception involves no side-effects.
- Unlike artificial method, natural method is reversible because there is no surgery involved.
Q.7. When is medical termination of pregnancy,MTP’s advised by the doctors?
A.7. Medical termination of pregnancy is advised under following circumstances:
- If pregnancy endangers health (physical/mental) of the woman.
- If child is malformed or handicapped
- In cases of rape.
- If girl is unmarried, consent of guardian is required.
- In case of mentally ill mothers.
Reproductive Health Class 12 Study materials
Q.8. Write important features of an ideal contraceptive?
A.8. The following are features of an ideal contraceptive:
- It is very safe.
- It can lasts for long time.
- It is cost-effective.
- It is highly- effective.
- Its effect can be reversed.
- It is independent of the coitus.
- It can be administered very easily.
- Does not requires any medical supervision.
Q.9. Explain the statement, “All reproductive tract infections are the sexually transmitted diseases, but all sexually transmitted diseases are not the reproductive tract infections.”
A.9. Reproductive tract infections are transferred from one partner to the another during the sexual intercourse. Hence known as the sexually transmitted diseases.
For example., gonorrhoea, genital herpes, syphilis, etc. However, some of the sexually transmitted diseases such as hepatitis, AIDS are transferred during the sexual intercourse but do not cause any of the infections in the reproductive tract or genitals. These are therefore, not referred to as the reproductive tract infections,RTI’s.
Q.10. Explain why tubectomy is considered as a contraceptive method?
A.10. Tubectomy is permanent method of sterilization in the women.
In this method, fallopian tubes are blocked or cut so that the egg is stopped from travelling to uterus. This eliminates any of the chances of the pregnancy.
Reproductive Health Class 12 – Long Answer Types Questions-
Q.1. Describe any of the three assisted reproductive techniques practised to treat the infertility.
A.1. Assisted Reproductive Techniques,ART refers to the medical procedures used to treat the infertility. Some of the assisted reproductive techniques are as follows –
- In-vitro Fertilization- The In-vitro fertilization technique involves the steps:
Stimulation of the ovaries by giving the human gonadotropins ↓ Retrieving released eggs ↓ Fertilization of eggs with the selected sperms. ↓ Development of the eggs into embryos under the labenvironment ↓ The embryos are implanted in uterus of the female i .e.mother.
- Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection- In this method, one sperm is injected into egg. But this procedure might damages egg. The babies might involve defects in reproductive organs in case of abnormal Y chromosome.
- Gamete Intrafallopian Tube Transfer- This method is used in case of the fallopian tubes that are functioning properly.
- In this technique, eggs and the sperms obtained are not fertilized in laboratory. They are inserted into far end of fallopian tube either through vagina or through abdomen with the help of a laparoscope.
Q.2. Write the advantages and disadvantages of the hormonal contraceptives?
Advantages of the hormonal contraceptives:
- This is a highly effective method of the contraception.
- It can be used for a longer period of time.
- It causes very light or no menstruation.
- The effects are reversible in nature.
Disadvantages of hormonal contraceptives:
- It does not protect against the sexually transmitted diseases.
- Minor surgery is required to insert and remove device.
- It has several side-effects such as the irregular menstruation, depression, weight gain, hair loss, and many more.
- Capsule implanted area might get infected.
- It is necessary to take medications continuously.
- The method is quite expensive.
Reproductive Health Class 12 short notes
Q.3. Mention any two sexually transmitted diseases and suggest some ways to prevent them.
A.3. Sexually transmitted diseases,STD’s are those that are transferred from one partner to the another through the sexual contact. The two sexually transmitted diseases are-
- AIDS– The Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). This virus attacks immune system of host making him vulnerable to the infections. It can be spread through the semen, blood, breastmilk, and rectal or vaginal fluids.
- Genital Herpes- Herpes is a chronic disease spread by Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV). The HSV type 2 virus spreads disease through the sexual intercourse. A person suffering from the genital herpes will show symptoms like to the fever, pain while urinating, vaginal discharge, red blisters on genitals, etc.
Prevention of the Sexually Transmitted Diseases,STD’s
- Use protection during the sexual intercourse.
- Get vaccinated for the Hepatitis and the Human Papilloma virus.
- Get tested for the HIV.
- Abstain from the sexual activities.
- Do not share underclothings and the towels.
Reproductive Health Class 12
Q.4. Justify ban on the amniocentesis in our country?
A.4. Amniocentesis is a technique in which amniotic fluid is collected from uterus with help of a needle to determine any genetic abnormalities in foetus by analysing chromosomal patterns. This technique was being misused to know gender of the foetus and if foetus was a girl, it was aborted.
To stop female foeticide, amniocentesis was banned under the Prenatal Diagnostics Technique Act in the year 1994.
Q.5. Why sex education should be introduced to the school-going children? List any of the five reasons.
A.5. Sex education should be introduced to the school going children for following reasons:
- To make students aware that bodily changes they are experiencing during the puberty are absolutely normal and natural.
- To help them speak up when they face any sexual harassment in the society.
- The students will get to know about facts of life from a supportive source instead of some absurd show or the movie.
- They will be made aware of risks involved in having the sex.
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