Imortabt For NEETBuy Link
NEET Short Notes

Buy Now

MTG Fingertips Biology

Buy Now

MS Chouhan Organic Chemistry

Buy Now

H.C Verma Physics

Buy Now

Grb Physical Chemisry

Buy Now

33 Years NEET PCB Chapterwise

Buy Now

Molecular basis of inheritance important points For NEET:  The molecular basis of inheritance is a process by which the genetic information is passed from one generation to next. This process involves replication, transcription, and translation of DNA, which results in production of proteins that carry out the functions of the cell.

The primary unit of the heredity is gene, which is composed of DNA. DNA is a long polymer made up of the nucleotide subunits, which are composed of a sugar molecule, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. Four nitrogenous bases in DNA are – adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T).

The structure of the DNA is a double helix, where two complementary strands of nucleotides are held together by the hydrogen bonds between their nitrogenous bases. Adenine always pairs with thymine, whereas guanine always pairs with cytosine.
The process of DNA replication begins when double helix unwinds and the two strands gets separated. Each strand serves as a template for synthesis of a new complementary strand. The enzyme DNA polymerase adds the new nucleotides to  growing strand in a process called polymerization. This results in the two identical copies of the original DNA molecule.

The process of transcription involves synthesis of RNA from a DNA template. RNA is similar to DNA, but it has a ribose sugar instead of a deoxyribose sugar, and it contains base uracil (U) instead of thymine. The enzyme RNA polymerase binds to DNA template and adds the nucleotides to growing RNA molecule in a process known as elongation. The sequence of the nucleotides in RNA molecule is complementary to DNA template strand.
The process of translation involves synthesis of the proteins from RNA. The RNA molecule is read by ribosome, which adds the amino acids to a growing polypeptide chain in a process called elongation. The sequence of amino acids in protein is determined by sequence of the nucleotides in the RNA molecule.

Mutations in DNA can result in the changes to sequence of the amino acids in a protein, which can affect its function. Some of the mutations can be harmful, while the others can be beneficial. The inheritance of these mutations can lead to evolution of the new traits over time.

Overall, molecular basis of inheritance involves replication, transcription, and translation of DNA, which results in production of the proteins that carry out functions of the cell.

Molecular basis of inheritance important points, Molecular basis of inheritance important points, Molecular basis of inheritance important points, Molecular basis of inheritance important points, Molecular basis of inheritance important points

NCERT biology class 12 chapter 6 – 25 important points on molecular basis of inheritance

There are 25 important points on molecular basis of inheritance important points:

Molecular basis of inheritance important points

1. The molecular basis of inheritance is a  mechanism by which the genetic information is transmitted from one generation to  next.

2. The fundamental unit of inheritance is gene, which is made up of DNA.

3. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is a double-stranded, helical molecule that carries genetic instructions used in growth, development, functioning, and reproduction of all known living organisms.

4. The DNA molecule is composed of the four different nucleotide bases: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).

5. The sequence of these nucleotide bases along the length of DNA molecule determines genetic information encoded in the DNA.

6. The genetic information contained in the DNA is transcribed into RNA (ribonucleic acid) by a process called as transcription.

7. RNA is a single-stranded molecule that serves as an intermediate between the DNA and the proteins.

8. The sequence of the nucleotide bases in RNA determines sequence of the amino acids in a protein, which in turn determines structure and function of the protein.

9. Proteins are molecules that performs the most of functions in cells, including catalyzing the chemical reactions, transporting molecules, and providing the structural support.

10. The process by which genetic information in DNA is used to produce the proteins is known as the central dogma of the molecular biology.

11. The central dogma of the molecular biology describes flow of the genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein.

12. DNA replication is a  process by which a cell duplicates its DNA before the cell division.

13. DNA replication is the semiconservative process in which each strand of parental DNA molecule serves as a template for synthesis of a complementary strand.

14. DNA replication is carried out by a complex of enzymes and the other proteins known as replisome.

15. DNA damage can occur as a result of the environmental factors such as radiation and chemicals, or as a result of errors in the DNA replication.

16. DNA damage can be repaired by a variety of mechanisms, including the base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, and the mismatch repair.

17. Mutations can occur as a result of errors in the DNA replication or as a result of exposure to the mutagens.

18. Mutations can have a range of effects on  organism, from having no effect to causing the disease or death.

19. Mutations can be inherited from one generation to next, leading to the genetic variation within a population.

20. Genetic variation is important for adaptation of the populations to the changing environments.

21. The process of the natural selection acts on the genetic variation within the populations, leading to evolution of the new species over time.

22. The study of  molecular basis of inheritance has led to many advances in the fields such as medicine, agriculture, and biotechnology.

23. Techniques such as genetic engineering and gene therapy have been developed based on our understanding of molecular basis of inheritance.

24. Human Genome Project, completed in the year 2003, provided a complete sequence of human genome, enabling the researchers to study molecular basis of human diseases and develop the new treatments.

25. The molecular basis of inheritance is a rapidly evolving field, and new discoveries are continually being made that deepen our understanding of how the genetic information is transmitted and how it shapes development and function of the living organisms.

Some Important Questions From Biology Class 11

Chapter NameQuiz Link
The Living WorldPlay Now
Biological ClassificationPlay Now
Plant KingdomPlay Now
Animal KingdomPlay Now
Morphology of flowering plantsPlay Now
Anatomy of flowering plantsPlay Now
Cell: the unit of lifePlay Now
BiomoleculesPlay Now
Cell Cycle and cell divisionPlay Now
Transport in PlantsPlay Now
Structural organisation in AnimalsPlay Now
Mineral nutritionPlay Now
Photosynthesis in higher plantsPlay Now
Respiration in plantsPlay Now
Plant Growth and developmentPlay Now
Digestion and AbsorptionPlay Now
Breathing and Exchange of GasesPlay Now
Body fluids and circulationPlay Now
Excretory products and their eliminationPlay Now
Locomotion and MovementPlay Now
Neural Control and CoordinationPlay Now
Chemical Coordination and IntegrationPlay Now

Some Important Questions From Biology Class 12

Chapter NameQuiz Link
Reproduction in organismPlay Now
Sexual reproduction in flowering plantPlay Now
Human reproductionPlay Now
Reproductive healthPlay Now
Principles of inheritance and variationPlay Now
Molecular basis of inheritancePlay Now
EvolutionPlay Now
Human health and diseasePlay Now
Strategies for enhancement in food productPlay Now
Microbes in human welfarePlay Now
Biotechnology principles and processesPlay Now
Biotechnology and its applicationPlay Now
Organism and populationPlay Now
EcosystemPlay Now
Biodiversity and its conservationPlay Now
Environment issuePlay Now

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

We use cookies in order to give you the best possible experience on our website. By continuing to use this site, you agree to our use of cookies.
Accept
Privacy Policy