Locomotion and movements important points: Locomotion is the ability of an organism to move from one place to the another. The type of locomotion used depends on environment, anatomy and physiology, and lifestyle of the organism. The muscular and the nervous systems works together to produce movement, with skeletal system providing a framework and the joints allowing for the transfer of force.
Different animals have evolved many different strategies for locomotion, such as running, swimming, and flying, with specialized adaptations for each form. The gait and pattern of the limb movement during locomotion can vary, with some animals using the specialized forms such as galloping or bounding. Energy conservation strategies during the locomotion includes minimizing the limb movements and reducing ground contact time.
Human beings are the unique among primates in their ability to walk upright on two legs, a characteristic known as bipedalism. The process of human walking is complex and requires the coordination of the legs, hips, and spine. Movement disorders can affect ability to walk, but technological advances such as the exosuits and prosthetics are being developed to help.
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NCERT Biology Class 11 Chapter 19, 25 important points on Locomotion and Movements Important Points
There are 25 important points on Locomotion and Movements Important Points:
1. Locomotion is defined as the ability of an organism to move from one place to the another.
2. Animals uses various forms of locomotion including walking, running, jumping, crawling, swimming, and flying.
3. Vertebrates uses muscles to move their bones and generate movement, while the invertebrates rely on hydraulic and muscular systems.
4. The type of locomotion used by an organism depends on environment in which it lives, its anatomy and physiology, and its life style.
5. The muscles involved in the locomotion must be able to generate the force and work in coordination with one another to produce smooth and efficient movement.
6. The skeletal system provides a framework for muscles to work against, and joints allow for transfer of force from one limb to the another.
7. The nervous system plays a crucial role in coordinating the movement by sending and receiving signals to and from muscles and other parts of the body.
8. The speed and efficiency of the locomotion are determined by the factors such as length and strength of the limbs, the arrangement of muscles and bones, and the distribution of body mass.
9. The different animals have evolved different strategies for the locomotion, such as running on four legs, crawling on many legs, or flying.
10. Many of the species uses their tails to balance while walking or running, and some of the animals, such as primates, uses their arms to help maintain the balance while moving.
11. Animals that lives in different environments have adaptations that helps them move effectively, such as the webbed feet for swimming, hooves for running on soft terrain, and wings for flight.
12. Some of the animals are capable of changing their form of locomotion in response to the changes in environment, such as transitioning from crawling to swimming when entering water.
13. The process of the locomotion involves complex interactions between muscular and nervous systems, with feedback mechanisms in place to ensure the stability and efficiency.
14. The gait of an animal, or pattern of limb movement during the locomotion, can vary depending on speed of movement and the environment.
15. Some of the animals uses the specialized forms of locomotion, such as galloping, bounding, and trotting, which are characterized by the specific patterns of limb movement.
16. Animals uses different strategies for conserving the energy during locomotion, such as minimizing the limb movements, reducing the ground contact time, and using gravity to their advantage.
17. The evolution of the flight has allowed birds and insects to move through air with the remarkable speed and efficiency.
18. Flying animals have specialized adaptations such as lightweight skeletons, large wings, and highly efficient muscles to facilitate the flight.
19. Swimming animals must overcome resistance of water to move efficiently, and have the adaptations such as streamlined bodies, fins, and specialized muscle systems to aid in propulsion.
20. Some of the animals, such as the snakes and worms, uses undulating movements to propel themselves forward, while the others, such as starfish, uses their limbs to crawl.
21. Human locomotion is unique among the primates, as they are capable of walking upright on two legs, a characteristic known as bipedalism.
22. Bipedalism has allowed the humans to move efficiently on two legs, freeing up the hands for tasks such as carrying out the objects and using tools.
23. Human walking is a complex process that involves coordinated movement of the legs, hips, and spine.
24. Movement disorders, such as the Parkinson’s disease, can affect ability of the organisms to walk and perform other forms of locomotion.
25. Technological advances, such as the exosuits and prosthetics, are being developed to help the people with movement disorders.
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