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Human Health and Diseases Class 12 Important Questions And Answers MCQ PDF

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Human Health and Diseases Class 12:- Health is not just absence of  medical disorder or  disease, it is  state of wellness of physical, mental and social aspects of an entity. Diseases like cholera, typhoid, pneumonia causes the  episodes of  distress in humans.

       Some diseases like malaria, for the instance, if left untreated may prove to be fatal. Apart from the personal hygiene and cleanliness, public and community health measures like the decontamination of the drinking water, proper disposal of the waste, immunization and control of the disease-carrying vectors can prove to be beneficial in preventing the ⁴diseases. When exposed to the disease-causing pathogens, our immune system plays a major role in the prevention of  diseases from affecting our system. Through this chapter, we get enlightened about the various diseases and their causatives along with  significance of  immune system and its responses.

Explore the important questions on human health and diseases for the better understanding of concepts.

Important Questions Chapter 8: Human Health and Diseases Class 12

Human Health and Diseases Class 12
Human Health and Diseases Class 12

Human Health and Diseases Class 12 – Very Short Answer Types Questions

Q.1. Explain by giving examples why a few pathogens are organ-tissue-specific.

A.1. The lymph nodes – HIV, Filariasis Lungs – Pneumonia.

Q.2. When ELISA test was conducted on an immune-suppressed person, he was tested positive for a pathogen.

(a) Identify disease the patient is being suffering from.

(b)  Write name of  causative entity.

(c) Mention cells of  body that are attacked by  pathogen.

A.2.

(a) Patient is suffering from the disease -AIDS i.e. Acquired immuno deficiency syndrome.

(b) It is caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus(HIV).

(c) It affects a type of the white blood cells called  as CD4 cells.

Q.3. Mention site in  body where  B-cells and T-cells are being formed. Write one difference between them.

A.3. Both B-cells and T-cells are formed in  bone marrow. They differs in site of the maturation. 

    B-cells matures  in  bone marrow whereas T-cells matures  in thymus.

Q.4. One of  following is not a matching pair of  pathogen and the disease they cause. Pick  odd one out and state the reasons for the following –

(a)VirusCommon cold
(b)SalmonellaTyphoid
(c)MicrosporumFilariasis
(d)PlasmodiumMalaria
Human Health and Diseases Class 12

A.4. Option (c) is the correct match.

    Fungi that belongs to  genera Microsporum, causes the  ringworm infectious diseases in the human beings.

Q.5. How would a person’s immune system is affected in absence of  thymus gland?

A.5. T-Lymphocytes in our body matures in thymus gland. If  thymus gland is removed from  body, T-Lymphocytes will fail to mature causing the immune system to not to develop. Thus person turns susceptible to most diseases.

Q.6. Write  preventive barriers that protects body against the  microbial bacteria entering  gut through  food consumed. Write the  immunity type observed in this case.

A.6.  The following are  barriers:

  •  The Lysozymes  present in  saliva.
  •  The presence of the  acid (HCl) in stomach.
  • The mucous coating  epithelial lining in gut region.

      Innate immunity is being observed here.

Q.7. Write down a major significance of the mother’s milk to a new-born infant.

A.7. The mother’s milk is being considered essential because of the presence of the colostrum which is a yellowish fluid secreted by the mother in the initial days of lactation. It’s also has antibodies(IgA) in abundance which is crucial in the protecting the infant from picking up infections.

Human Health and Diseases Class 12 Quiz

Q.8. What do u mean by Interferon? How do they monitor  infection of the new cells?

A.8. The Virus-infected and the tumour cells secretes the glycoproteins which protects non-infected cells from the pathogen’s attack, they are called as interferons.    

        Interferons activates the macrophages which are the natural killer cells, prevents viral replication. They increases antigen presentation to the lymphocytes which constantly multiplies  to eliminate the foreign bodies.

Q.9. Write the  four withdrawal symptoms exhibited by the alcohol or to the drug addict.

A.9. The four withdrawal symptoms exhibited by alcohol or drug addict are-

1.Shakiness

2. Anxiety

 3.Sweating 

 4.Nausea.

Q.10. Why is it asked to avoid the crowded and closed air-conditioned places during changing of  the weather?

A.10. This  is so because the pathogens are most active in the moist conditions and favours their growth. One can easily get affected as  body is getting adapted to fluctuating the ambient temperature and humidity making them susceptible to the  diseases.

Q.11. Write the role of lymph nodes in the immunity response?

A.11. Lymphocytes present in  lymph nodes prevents the microbes or the antigens from entering through  tissue and lymph fluid by filtering out, disposing and immobilizing the pathogens.

Q.12. Why an antibody is represented as the H2L2 .

A.12. Antibodies are the Y shaped structures with the two chains, four peptides the two light chains (L2) and the two heavy chains (H2), hence the representation,H2L2.

Q.13. What do u mean by ‘memory’ associated with the immune system?

A.13. Our body appears to have a memory of first encounter it had with a pathogen which stimulates an immune response by generating the antibodies. 

      This response is intensified during  secondary response which is elicited by the memory T-cells, B-cells which are ready to attack in case, same pathogen reappears in future.

Q.14.  Write the name of the infection and its causative agent if a patient is prescribed as Anti Retroviral therapy.

A.14. The name of the disease is AIDS 

And the causative agent is HIV.

Q.15.What do u mean by Pathology?

A.15.  Pathology refers to  study of the causes and its  effects of the diseases.

Q.16.What do u mean by the Non-communicable diseases?

A.16. Noncommunicable diseases are also known as the Chronic diseases, which are long-lasting and are caused by the inherited genetic abnormalities.

Q.17.What do u mean by Epidemiology?

A.17. Epidemiology is branch of the medicine, which deals with causes of the diseases, mode of the transmission, precautions of the diseases and the other factors related to the health and diseases.

Q.18.What do u mean by the Deficiency Diseases?

A.18.Group of the diseases produced by deficiency of the nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and the hormones are collectively known as the deficiency diseases.  Examples of deficiency diseases are -Kwashiorkor, night blindness, goitre, anaemia, diabetes, scurvy.

Q.19.What do you mean by immunity and explains it’s different types?

A.19. Immunity is  the ability of the body to protect against all the types of the infectious diseases by defending against disease-causing  pathogens like the bacteria, virus, fungi and other toxic substances from invading our body. 

    The two types of immunity are-

  1. The Innate Immunity or the Natural Immunity.
  2. The Acquired Immunity.

Q.20. What do you mean by the Antigens and the Antibodies.

A.20.

  • Antigens–They are  large molecules of the proteins and the polysaccharides present on  surface of the cells. 

                      These molecules functions by   triggering  production of the antibodies by inducing an immune response.

  • Antibodies— They are the proteins produced by immune system, which functions by defending  host against the foreign invasion.

Human Health and Diseases Class 12 – Short Answer Types Questions

Q.1. Write the difference between the immunity and  the passive immunity?

A.1.  The following are the differences between the Active Immunity and Passive Immunity –

Active ImmunityPassive Immunity
1.It is produced by the immune system actively.1.It is produced by  immune system passively.
2.Antibodies are produced by the immunogens.2.Antibodies are transferred not produced.
3.It involves the antigens.3. It involves the antibodies.
4.It is durable in nature.4.It is transient in nature.
5.Natural active immunity is by the clinical infection.5.Natural passive immunity is by transfer of the antibodies through placenta.
Human Health and Diseases Class 12

Q.2. Write the difference between the benign tumour and the malignant tumour?

A.2.  The listed below are the differences-

Benign TumourMalign Tumour
1.It doesn’t metastasize.1.Metastasizes to the other parts of body.
2. It is slow-growing in nature.2. It is fast-growing in nature.
3. It does not invade  ambient tissue.3.It invades  surrounding tissues.
4. The chances of the recurrence are less after the surgery.4. It recurs even after the surgery.
5.Examples are- Myomas, Adenomas, and Neuromas.5.Examples are- Carcinomas, and Sarcomas.
Human Health and Diseases Class 12

Q.3. What according to you  is more dangerous – Active smoking or passive smoking? Write the reasons.

A.3. The Active and the passive smoking can equally be dangerous, as the  passive smoking exposes one to  same harmful effects as the active smoking. 

       Once smoke is being inhaled, it induces the cough, the prolonged exposure can cause emphysema, bronchitis and infections of respiratory tract thereby causing the lung cancer eventually.

Q.4. Explain why “Prevention is better than cure”.

A.4. It is because some  of the diseases have  potential to  cause the extensive damage to organs or tissues of  body which can affect their functioning capacity. 

              It can also induces  a permanent debilitating effect not only physically but also mentally affecting one’s psychology. It incurs the additional financial burden.

Q.5. Write the three remedial measures to treat the microbial infections.

A.5.  The following are  preventive measures:

  • Avoid being in the crowded places.
  • Consume healthy food, safe drinking and the pure air.
  • Maintaining community as well as the personal hygiene through the vaccine administration.

Q.6.Diagram below shows the replication of the retrovirus in  host.

 Answer the following questions.

(a) Fill in the missing data in the boxes labelled as  1 & 2.

(b) Why it is called as the retrovirus?

(c) While virus is being replicated and released, does the infected cell will survive?

replication of the retrovirus
Human Health and Diseases Class 12

A.6. (a)

 1. – The Viral DNA is produced by the reverse transcriptase. 

2. – The new viral RNA is produced by infected cell.

 (b)The RNA produces DNA by the reverse transcription and is the genetic material of  virus. 

© The infected cell can survive.

Q.7. Fill in the missing data in the table depicting the diseases, their causative agents and their symptoms.

missing data
Human Health and Diseases Class 12

A.7.

Name of the diseaseCausative Agent Symptoms
1.AscariasisAscarisMuscular pain, internal bleeding, fever, anaemia, blockage of  intestinal passage.
2.RingwormTrichophytonAppearance of the scaly lesions, dry skin on various parts of  body.
3.TyphoidSalmonella TyphimuriumStomach pain, High fever, headache, weakness, and constipation.
4.PneumoniaStreptococcus pneumoniaFever, cough, chills, headache. Fingernails and lips may turn grey to bluish in some of the cases.
5.Common coldRhinovirusesNasal congestion and discharge, sore throat, cough, and headache.
6.FilariasisWuchereria(W.bancrofti, W.malayi)Inflammation in the lower limbs.
Human Health and Diseases Class 12

Q.8. Answer the following questions-

(a)  Write the name of the group of the drugs this structure represents.

(b) Write the modes of the consumption of this drug.

(c)Which organ of body is affected by  consumption of this drug?

outline structure of a drug
Human Health and Diseases Class 12

A.8.

(a)  The name of the drug is Cannabinoids.

(b) The modes of consumption are-Oral Ingestion or inhalation.

(c) The cardiovascular system and the heart are adversely affected.

Q.9. Expand  MRI and CT? Where  they can be used? Write the difference between them.

A.9. MRI is Magnetic Resonance Imaging

 CT is  Computed Tomography MRI uses the magnetic fields and is a non-invasive technique whereas the CT uses the X-rays and is an invasive technique.

 MRI gives a better contrast of the softer tissues compared to CT but cannot be used on the patients with the metal implants and pacemakers. CT provides a 3D and the sectional picture of any part or section of  body.

Q.10. Write the uses of cannabinoids prohibited in the games and sports?

A.10. It was banned since athletes misused these drugs so as to improve their performances in the sports. 

Cannabinoids can have the adverse negative effects on the health in long run that can impede normal functioning of  organs.

Q.11. What do u mean by secondary metabolism?

A.11. Secondary metabolism is used to refer to the pathways and metabolites produced by the metabolism that are not essential for  survival of the entities.

 In case of plants, metabolites help in  development and growth of the plants. It also promotes the primary metabolism. It is called specialized metabolism.

Q.12. Why are the diseases like cholera, typhoid, and dysentery etc., more common in the overcrowded places?

A.12. It is because they are the infectious diseases and can communicate from person to the person. 

      Water gets mixed with excreta of the infected people thereby contaminating it. Such water, if consumed causes infection to spread to the non-infected people.

Q.13. Which of the plant yields the cannabinoids? Name any two cannabinoids you know . Write the name of  the part of the body part that is affected by its consumption.

A.13. The cannabinoids are obtained from  inflorescence of Cannabis Sativa plant. Some of  cannabinoids are as follows- Marijuana, charas, and ganja etc. These substances have  potential to interact with cannabinoid receptors of  body that are located in brain. It also affects cardiovascular system of  body of the living beings.

Q.14. What causes the asthma/allergy in the metropolitan cities of India? 

Write some of the symptoms of asthma.

A.14. More polluted environment lowers immunity levels and sensitivity to the allergens in the metropolitan cities. Dust in surroundings rises chances of the allergy in the children.

 Few symptoms are as follows– 

watery eyes, sneezing, difficulties  in breathing and running of the nose.

Q.15. Write the principle of the vaccination. How can vaccines be used to prevent the microbial infections? 

   Write  name of  entity from which the hepatitis B vaccine is being synthesized.

A.15. It is based on principle of ‘memory’ of  immune system. In the vaccination process, a preparation of the antigenic proteins or the inactivated pathogen is introduced in body. These antigens generate a primary immune response by generating the antibodies with the memory B-cells and T-cells. Hence, when vaccinated person is attacked again by same pathogen, current T-cells and B-cells recognize antigen and cause the massive production of the antibodies and the lymphocytes. Yeasts produces hepatitis-B vaccine.

Q.16. What do u mean by cancer? What causes a normal cell to turn into cancerous? How is it different from the normal cell?

A.16. Cancer is an uncontrolled and abnormal division of the cells. Under the certain conditions, genes such as the proto-oncogenes or the cellular oncogenes present in the normal cells get activated leading to their oncogenic transformation causing the cancer. 

The following are the differences between the normal and the cancerous cells-

Normal cellsCancerous cells
1.They divide in  controlled manner.1.It divides uncontrollably.
2.Cells exhibits the contact inhibition.2.Cells do not displays the contact inhibition.
3.Definite the lifespan.3.Indefinite the lifespan.
Human Health and Diseases Class 12

Q.17. Detect medical ailment in following cases – Strong hypersensitive reactions displayed by the person when exposed to a few substances in air. 

Identify cells causing this reaction. State a precautionary measure to avoid such a reactions.

A.17.  Patient is the allergic to substances in  air. Allergies are due to  release of the chemicals such as the serotonin and the histamine from mast cells. One of precautionary measures can be to avoid coming in contact with such allergens present in  air.

Human Health and Diseases Class 12

Q.18. Is it advantageous to have an identical twin for the organ transplant? If yes/no, explain why?

A.18. It is advantageous since  organ has  same surface markers. 

  Hence, the Immune System of  recipient will not detect it as alien or imported and thereby will not react against it. The immune system reacts killing foreign tissue only if it detects the different surface markers.

Q.19. What do u mean by  lifestyle disease? Write the two lifestyle diseases. What is the causative?

A.19. It is a disease or disorder which is associated with  way a person lives. They are caused by the certain work-related ethics, posture, specific food habits or even the exposure to harmful substances or the radiations. It could even arise due to the lack of physical activity, exercise, and mental disturbance etc. 

Examples of lifestyle diseases- Heart Disease, Cancer, and Obesity etc.

Q.20. Which pathogenic virus would mutates faster one with the DNA or RNA? Why? Give reasons.

A.20. Pathogenic virus with RNA would mutates in  faster rate than DNA as DNA is more stable and possesses better repair mechanisms in the body of the organism. They have  potential to rectify  changes in the base pairs (if any) as soon as the change has being occurred.

Human Health and Diseases Class 12 – Long Answer Types Questions

Q.1. What causes the adolescents to start using the drugs? How can  use of drugs be avoided?

A.1. Few are the reasons that causes the adolescents to start consuming the drugs are:

  • Curiosity to the  experiment.
  • For the excitement and adventure sake.
  • Peer pressure.
  • In an attempt to push one’s physical and the mental boundaries and to produce more work.
  • To overcome the depression and the frustration caused due to the failure in the miscellaneous activities.
  • Lack of the support from the family members.

Remedial measures to avoid the usage of the drugs are:

  • Avoid pressuring children to perform the weeds beyond his/her academic capabilities.
  • Educate and counsel children to deal with stress and disturbances in life
  • Seek help from the family members, peers.
  • Stay alert on  danger signs by adopting the suitable measures to treat them.
  • Seek the medical/professional help for the rehabilitation and de-addiction.

Q.2. Write the behavioural changes observed in an alcohol addict and the remedial measures to overcome  problem.

A.2.  The following are the changes that are observed:

  • Alcohol drinks are costly, it may deprive  family of their basic needs
  • Drinking is associated with the crimes and the dissolution of the cultural and the moral inhibitions.
  • Some corrupt practices and violence are often directly or indirectly related to the alcohol consumption.

 Some of the Remedial measures are –

  • Avoid getting influenced by the pressure from peers.
  • Counselling and education aids in the overcoming issues like the stress, failure and the disturbance
  • Seek aid from the family members and peers.
  • Staying aware of the danger signals, if one finds himself amidst a group of people consuming alcohol.
  • Seeking medical or professional help is one of  resorts for the  people suffering from the addiction, to lead a healthy and a normal life.

Human Health and Diseases Class 12

Q.3. How can you detect cancer? What are the some of the approaches to treat the cancer?

A.3. Cancer can be detected at the early stages and th6early detection is essential. The following are a few diagnosis and detection areas:

  • Tests for the increase cell count(blood cancer).
  • The histo-pathological and biopsy of the blood/tissues/bone marrow.
  • Radiography, CT, MRI to detect the cancer of the internal organs.
  • Identification of the cancer-specific antigens.
  • Application of the molecular biology techniques to detect the genes with inherited susceptibility to a few cancers.

Treatment of the cancer:

 Listed below are the few approaches that can be used to treat the cancer-

  • Surgery to remove tumour.
  • Immunotherapy to boost up the killing of the cancer cells.
  • Radiotherapy to kill the cancerous cells.
  • Chemotherapy.
  • Administration of the biological response mediators such as the ∝-interferons that activates  the immune system thus helping in the destroying the tumour.

Q.4. Explain why the excessive dosage and abusive usage of the drugs such as the amphetamines, LSD and barbiturates used to treat the mental illness, are considered harmful? What are  major effects of  usage of the drugs in human beings?

A.4. Its harmful effects are as follows –

  • Shakiness, anxiety, sweating and nausea,and loss of the mind control.
  • Vandalism, violence and the reckless behaviour.
  • Fluctuations in the appetite and weight, lack of the interest in the personal hygiene.
  • Isolation, depression, withdrawal, aggressive behaviour, and fatigue.
  • Social adjustment problems.
  • Severe and the life-threatening withdrawal symptoms.
  • Excessive drug dosage can lead to the coma and eventually death may occur due to the respiratory failure, cerebral haemorrhage or the heart failure.

Q.5. What do u mean by recombinant DNA vaccine? Write the two such vaccines. Write their advantages.

A.5. The Recombinant DNA vaccines consist of the plasmid, which is a small circular DNA. It contains a pathogen DNA to produce one or the two specific proteins of pathogen.     This DNA is then inserted into  yeast or the bacteria cells to utilize machinery of  cell to generate the pathogen’s polypeptides.

     These vaccines can be used to stimulate  organization of the immune responses. Vaccines hence produced are used on a large scale for manufacture of the –

  • Hepatitis-B vaccine (yeast).
  • Bird flu DNA vaccine.

Some of the advantages are:

  • These vaccines are always more beneficial than the attenuated vaccines as they do not mutate again.
  • They are distinctly pure and specific and evokes the strong immune responses.

Q.6.What do u mean by  Typhoid? Write the symptoms of the Typhoid?

A.6.  Typhoid is an infectious disease caused by  Salmonella typhi or S. Typhi bacteria, which infects intestinal tract and blood cells of an individual.

Few common symptoms of the Typhoid-

  • Headache
  • Dry cough
  • Sweating
  • Skin Rashes
  • Muscle aches
  • Abdominal pain
  • Weakness and fatigue
  • Diarrhoea or the constipation
  • Loss of the appetite and the weight loss.
  • Sustained fever or the fever with the elevating the body temperature.

Human Health and Diseases Class 12Human Health and Diseases Class 12

Q.7. What do u mean by Ringworm? What are different types of the ringworm?

A.7. Ringworm is a type of the skin infection, caused by  fungus. It is a contagious skin disorder, which can spread by skin contact with an infected person. 

There are different types of the ringworm and are mainly classified based on  body parts which get infected.  Most common forms of the ringworm are the  tinea pedis, tinea capitis, tinea cruris and tinea corporis.  

The types of the Ringworms are:

Ringworm is the classified based on  part of body it affects-

  1. Tinea corporis: This fungal infection might occur in any part of  body. 
  2. Tinea capitis:  It is also known as  scalp ringworm. This fungal infection affects  scalp.
  3. Tinea cruris: This fungal infection affects skin around  buttocks, inner thighs, and the groin. It is also known as  Jock itch.
  4. Tinea pedis: This fungal infection affects both  foot, in between fingernails and the toenails. It is called as the Athlete’s foot. 

Q.8. Write the factors responsible for the triggering of asthma attacks?

A.8. Asthma is a chronic condition, which alters  airways of human respiratory system. There are several factors responsible for the triggering of asthma attacks and they vary from person to the person. 

  The listed below are a few of them-

  • Pollen.
  • Smoking.
  • Sinusitis.
  • Allergies.
  • Pollution.
  • Pet dander.
  • Common cold.
  • Dust and dust mites.
  • Respiratory infections.
  • Side effects of the Medication.
  • Exhausted gases from the vehicles and the industries.

Q.9. What you u mean by the  minerals and write the essential minerals along with  deficiency diseases caused by  lack of essential minerals.

A.9. Minerals are the inorganic nutrients that includes the traces of the elements such as the copper, zinc, iodine, iron, along with macronutrients such as the calcium, potassium, magnesium and sodium. 

Important minerals required by our body are the calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and sulphur.

           Here is  list of the deficiency diseases caused by  lack of the minerals in our body.

  1. Anaemia.
  2. Joint pain 
  3. Loss of the appetite.
  4. Retarded growth.
  5. Excessive bleeding.
  6. Brittle and the weak bones.
  7. Diarrhoea or vomiting.
  8. Dental cavities and the gum disease.
  9. Goitre and the enlarged thyroid gland.
  10. Purple colored or the blood spots under  skin.

Q.10. Name the major deficiency diseases caused due to the lack of the essential minerals and vitamins?

A.10. Here is  list of the incredibly common nutrients deficiencies disorders caused due to the lack of the essential minerals and vitamins.

Vitamins and MineralsDeficiency Diseases
1.Vitamin-A (Retinol)1.Night blindness, Xerophthalmia, and chronic diarrhoea, etc.
2.Vitamin-B1 (Thiamine)2.Beri-beri, Weight loss, confusions, and short-term memory loss, etc.
3.Vitamin-B2 (Riboflavin)3.Dry skin, Mouth ulcers,and   itchy and watery, etc.
4.VitaminB12 (Cyanocobalamin)4.Anaemia, fatigue, fatigue,and  breathlessness, etc.
5.Vitamin-C (Ascorbic acid)5.Fatigue, depression, skin rashes, and internal bleeding, etc.
6.Vitamin-D (Calciferol)6.Rickets, Fatigue, and Tiredness, etc.
7.Vitamin-K (Phylloquinone)7.Excessive bleeding due to the injury.
8.Calcium8.Brittle bones and the excessive bleeding.
9.Phosphorus9.Bad teeth, Rickets, osteomalacia and osteoporosis.
10.Iron10.Anaemia, fatigue with the low red blood cell count.
11.Iodine11.Goitre, enlarged thyroid gland and hypothyroidism.
12.Copper12.Low appetite, muscle weakness, anaemia, low white blood cell count, and the retard growth.
Human Health and Diseases Class 12

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