Chemical coordination and integration important points: Chemical control and coordination is a process by which the hormones controls the various physiological and behavioral processes in the living organisms. Hormones are the chemical messengers secreted by the glands and the endocrine system is responsible for their production and regulation.
The hypothalamus is primary control center, and pituitary gland regulates the activity of the other glands. Hormones can have a wide range of effects on body and can be classified into several types, including the peptide, steroid, and amine hormones. Hormone levels are regulated by the feedback mechanisms, and imbalances can lead to different health problems. Hormone therapy can be used to supplement or replace the naturally occurring hormones in our body but has potential side effects.
The nervous system also modulates the hormone release and works closely with endocrine system to maintain the homeostasis.The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is a key pathway involved in body’s response to stress, which can have both the short-term and long-term effects on health.
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NCERT Biology Class 11 Chapter 22, 25 important points on Chemical Coordination and Integration Important Points
There are 25 important points on Chemical Coordination and Integration Important Points:
1. Chemical control and coordination is a process by which the hormones control various physiological and behavioral processes in the living organisms.
2. Hormones are the chemical messengers that are secreted by the glands and travels through the bloodstream to reach the target organs and tissues.
3. The endocrine system is responsible for production and regulation of the hormones, and it works closely with nervous system to coordinate the bodily functions.
4. The hypothalamus is primary control center for endocrine system, and it receives the input from the other parts of the brain and the environment to regulate the hormone production.
5. The pituitary gland is often referred to as “master gland” because it regulates activity of the other glands in the body.
6. Other glands in endocrine system includes thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, and testes.
7. Hormones can have a wide range of effects on our body, including regulating the metabolism, growth and development, sexual development and behavior, and stress response.
8. Hormones can be classified into several different types, including the peptide hormones, steroid hormones, and amine hormones.
9. Peptide hormones are made up of chains of amino acids and includes hormones such as insulin, glucagon, and growth hormone.
10. Steroid hormones are derived from the cholesterol and includes hormones such as the testosterone, estrogen, and cortisol.
11. Amine hormones are derived from amino acids and includes hormones such as the adrenaline and dopamine.
12. Hormones can be typically released in response to specific stimuli, such as stress, hunger, or sexual arousal.
13. The feedback mechanism is important in regulating the hormone levels, as it ensures that the hormones are released only when they are needed and not in excess.
14. Hormones can also interact with one another to modulate their effects on body.
15. Hormones can act on the target cells in several different ways, including binding to specific receptors on cell membrane or by entering the cell and binding to the receptors in the nucleus.
16. The effects of the hormones can be short-term or long-term, depending on nature of the hormone and target cells.
17. Imbalances in the hormone levels can lead to a wide range of the health problems, including diabetes, thyroid disorders, and reproductive disorders.
18. Hormone therapy can be used to supplement or replace the naturally occurring hormones in body, and it is commonly used to treat the conditions such as menopause, hypothyroidism, and low testosterone.
19. Hormone therapy can have the side effects, including increased risk of certain types of cancer, and it should be used with caution.
20. The nervous system can also modulate the hormone release and activity, and it works closely with endocrine system to coordinate the bodily functions.
21. The autonomic nervous system is responsible for regulating the involuntary processes such as heart rate, digestion, and respiratory rate.
22. The sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of autonomic nervous system have opposing effects on these processes, and they work together to maintain homeostasis in the body.
23. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is the key pathway involved in the body’s response to stress, and it involves release of cortisol from the adrenal glands.
24. The body’s response to stress can have both the short-term and long-term effects on the health, and chronic stress can lead to a wide range of health problems.
25. Understanding complex interactions between endocrine and nervous systems is essential for understanding how the body maintains the homeostasis and responds to the environmental and internal stimuli.
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