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Breathing and exchange of gases important points

Breathing and exchange of gases important points: Breathing is a vital process that involves inhaling and exhaling the air to deliver oxygen to body’s cells and remove the carbon dioxide, a waste product of the cellular respiration. It is controlled by  respiratory center in brain and is influenced by levels of the carbon dioxide and oxygen in blood and brain.

During the process of inhalation, air is drawn into the lungs and reaches alveoli, tiny air sacs where the exchange of gases occurs between the air and blood. Oxygen diffuses into blood and carbon dioxide diffuses out into the air.

The rate of the breathing is influenced by the various factors, including level of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the blood, altitude, temperature, humidity, and medical conditions such as asthma and sleep apnea. Improving the overall health, practicing proper breathing techniques, and engaging in the physical activity can improve efficiency of the gas exchange in the lungs.

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NCERT Biology Class 11 Chapter 17, 25 important points on Breathing and exchange of gases important points

There are 25 important points on breathing and exchange of gases:

Breathing and exchange of gases important points
Breathing and exchange of gases important points

1. Breathing is a process of inhaling and exhaling the air to transport the oxygen to the body’s cells and remove the carbon dioxide.

2. The purpose of breathing is to deliver the oxygen to the body’s cells and remove the carbon dioxide, a waste product of the cellular respiration.

3. Breathing is controlled by respiratory center in the brain, which is influenced by  level of carbon dioxide in the blood and  level of oxygen in the brain.

4. During the process of inhalation, air is drawn into  lungs through the mouth or the nose, passing through pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi before reaching the alveoli.

5. The alveoli are the tiny air sacs in the lungs where exchange of the gases occurs between the air and the blood.

6. Oxygen from air diffuses into the blood in alveoli, where it binds to the hemoglobin molecules in red blood cells.

7. Carbon dioxide, a waste product of the cellular respiration, diffuses from blood into the alveoli, where it is exhaled into atmosphere.

8. Rate of breathing is influenced by level of carbon dioxide in the blood and  level of oxygen in the brain.

9.When the carbon dioxide levels in blood increases , the respiratory center in the brain signals the muscles of the respiration to increase the rate of breathing, which increases elimination of carbon dioxide.

10. When the oxygen levels in the blood decreases, the respiratory center signals the muscles of the respiration to increase rate of breathing, which increases the delivery of the oxygen to the body’s cells.

11. Surface area of the alveoli is large to facilitate exchange of the gases between the air and the blood.

12. The walls of  alveoli are quite thin to allow for efficient diffusion of gases.

13. The pulmonary capillaries surrounding  alveoli transports the oxygen-rich blood to the body’s cells and return the carbon dioxide-rich blood to the lungs.

14. Oxygen-hemoglobin bond is reversible, allowing the oxygen to be released from blood and bind to the hemoglobin as needed.

15. The exchange of gases in alveoli is influenced by pressure gradient between the air in  alveoli and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries.

16. The pressure gradient is maintained by respiratory muscles, which controls the volume of the air in the lungs and the pressure within the alveoli.

17. The process of breathing is also influenced by the factors such as altitude, temperature, and humidity, which affect the concentration of gases in the air.

18. Breathing can be impacted by a variety of medical conditions, including the asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and sleep apnea.

19. These conditions can cause airways to become narrow, making it difficult to breathe, or can disrupt normal function of the respiratory center, causing the irregular breathing patterns.

20. The exchange of the gases can also be impacted by the certain drugs, such as anesthesia, which depresses  the respiratory center, and alcohol, which can cause the respiratory depression.

21. The proper breathing techniques, such as deep breathing and diaphragmatic breathing, can help to improve the efficiency of the gas exchange in the lungs.

22. Physical activity, such as exercise, can also increase the efficiency of the gas exchange by increasing rate and depth of breathing and increasing  circulation of the blood.

23. Maintaining a good overall health, including a healthy diet and avoiding smoking, can help to support the normal functioning of  respiratory system and improves the exchange of gases in the lungs.

24. Mechanism of Breathing: Breathing involves contraction and relaxation of  diaphragm and intercostal muscles, which increases and decreases volume of the chest cavity. This change in the volume creates the pressure differences that causes the air to flow in and out of the lungs.

25. Importance of Breathing: Maintaining the proper breathing pattern is essential for the overall health and well-being. Good breathing helps to improve the oxygen delivery to the cells, removes waste products, and regulates the acid-base balance in the body. It can also have a positive effect on the nervous system, helping to reduce the stress and promote relaxation.

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