Anatomy Of Flowering Plants Class 11 Introduction:
Anatomy Of Flowering Plants Class 11:- There are various structural similarities and variations in the external morphology of living organisms including plants and animals. Similarily, if we compare or study the Internal structure of living organisms including both plants and animals,there also we find several differences as well as similarities. In this chapter we are going to study the Internal structure of plants which we called as Anatomy. In case of plants,cells are called the basic unit . Cells are organised into tissues, tissues further are organised into organs, and organs further makes the whole body of the plants. The Internal structures also show adaptation for various environmental conditions.
Anatomy Of Flowering Plants Class 11 Questions
Q.1. Where the product of photosynthesis is stored in plants?
A.1. Product of photosynthesis is stored as Phloem.
Q.2. Which cells curl the leaves during water stress in plants ?
A.2. Bulliform cells of the monocot leaves present in the upper epidermis makes the leaves curl during conditions of water stress.
Q.3.Cambial rings are comprised of?
A.3. Cambium is the layer of actively dividing cells between the phloem and the xylem tissues which are responsible for the secondary growth of stems and roots.
Q.4. If a tree is debarked, which part of the plant is being removed during the process?
A.4. All the tissues external to the vascular cambium, including secondary phloem, are removed during the process of debarkment.
Q.5. Name the three types of meristematic tissues found in plants?
A.5.Meristematic tissues are the group of young cells which consists of actively dividing cells in plants. The main types of meristematic tissues are the following-
Apical Meristem,Lateral Meristem and intercalary Meristem.
Q.6. How is cork formed in plant? Which is its commercial source?
A.6. Cork is formed by phellogen or the cork cambium. The tissues of dead, tannin, and air-filled suberised cells formed on the outer side of the phellogen is called the cork.
The commercial source of oak is Querious oak or Cork.
Q.7.Differentiate between lenticels and stomata.
|1 Minute pores are found on epidermis of the leaves.||1.Pores present on the tree trunk or the stem of plant.|
|2.The opening and closing of stomata can be regulated.||2.lenticels are always open.|
|3.These possess guard cells.||3.Guard cells are absent.|
|4.They facilitate transpiration and exchange of gases.||4.Only responsible for the exchange of all gases.|
|5.Active during the day.||5.Active during the night time.|
|6.The stomatal guard cells contain chlorophyll that helps in photosynthesis.||6.Lenticels cannot photosynthesize.|
|7.A large amount of water vapour is emitted through the stomata.||7.Small amount of water vapour is released through lenticels.|
|8.Not found in roots and fruits.||8.Found in fruit and root.|
Q.8. Why did the plants die when water is in excessive amount?
A.8. Over-watering drowns the plant and blocks air pockets. Thus the roots do not get enough air to breathe properly. That is why plants die in excessive water conditions.
Q.9. How and why do the palm increase in girth despite of being a monocotyledonous plant?
A.9. The parenchymatous cells in ground tissue enlarge and divide. Thus, due to the repeated division, the girth of the stem increases and is known as diffused secondary growth of plant.
Q.10. Pinus is an evergreen tree?comment.
A.10. Evergreen plants have green leaves throughout the year. Pinus belongs to the gymnosperm group of plants. Pinus has a thick bark, and needle-like leaves to reduce the rate of the transpiration. Pinus is well-adapted to low temperatures conditions. It continues to prepare its food even in very cold conditions and does not shed its leaves.
Q.11. Why phloem and xylem are called the complex tissues?
A.11. Xylem and phloem are made up of more than one type of cells. These cells function in coordination to perform various functions in the plants.
Xylem conducts water and minerals and provides support to plants . It is made up of tracheids, xylem parenchyma, and xylem fibres. Phloem conducts the food materials to various parts of the plant. It comprises of sieve tubes, phloem parenchyma, companion cells, and phloem fibres. That is why they are known as complex tissues.
Q.12. Differentiate between the guard cells and the epidermal cells. Which epidermal cell surrounds the guard cell?
Differences between the guard cells and the epidermal cells:
|Guard Cells||Epidermal Cells|
|1.Kidney-shaped in appearance.||1.Barrel-shaped in appearance.|
|2.Smaller in size.||2.Larger in size.|
|3.Chloroplast is present.||3.Chloroplast absent .|
|4.The cell wall is non-uniform and thick.||4.Cell wall is thin and uniform..|
The epidermal cells surrounding guard cells are known as subsidiary cells.
Q.13. How are the growth rings in a tree trunk formed? What is the importance of it?
A.13. Growth rings are concentric rings, also known as the annual rings. Secondary growth gives rise to these rings. Secondary growth occurs due to the activity of meristematic tissue, cambium. By counting these rings, one can also determine the age of a tree easily.
Q.14. Name the modifications and write the functions of epidermal cells.
A.14. Following are the modifications of epidermal cells:
The root hairs consists of unicellular hair extending from the epidermal cells.
It increases surface area for the absorption of water and minerals.
They may be unicellular or multicellular. Also known as the trichomes.
They defend the plant against insects. They help in lowering the temperature of plant and reduces the water loss.
Q.15. From where plant fibres are obtained?
- Jute- Corchoruscapsularis
- Coir-Coconut husk
- Cotton- Gossypiumhirsutum seed
- Hemp-Stem of the Cannabis sativa
Q.16. How is the age of the tree determined?
A.16. To estimate the age of a tree, the diameter of its heartwood is calculated by measuring the circumference of trunk and then by checking the growth factor for that type of the tree.
Anatomy Of Flowering Plants Class 11 Quiz
Q.17. What are the guard cells?
A.17.Guard cells are the specialized plant cells present in the epidermis of leaves, stems and other organs. These cells plays an important role in facilitating the gaseous exchange and controlling transpiration in plants by regulating the opening and the closing of stomata of the leaves..
Q.18. Define gymnosperms? Give examples.
A.18.Gymnosperm are seeds producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, gnetophytes and ginko. They do not produce flowers or fruits and have naked seeds.
Examples includes -Cycas, pinus, Cedrus, Thuja ,Abies, Larix.
Q.19. How angiosperms are classified?
A.19.Angiosperms are the vascular plants with stems, roots, and leaves. Based on the types of cotyledons, angiosperms can be divided into two groups:
- Monocotyledons – The seeds of the plants have a single cotyledon.
For eg., banana, sugarcane, lilies, etc.
- Dicotyledons- The seeds of these plants have two cotyledons.
For eg., grapes, sunflower, tomatoes, etc.
Q.20.Which are the reproductive parts of a flower?
A.20. Stamen and the Pistil are the two main reproductive parts in a flower-
- Stamen –The male reproductive organ of a flower. It is also known as the Androecium. It consists of anther and filaments.
- Pistil-The female reproductive organ of a flower is known as gynoecium. It comprises three parts -stigma, style and the ovary.
Q.21.What are the Permanent tissues?
A.21.The permanent tissues are defined as fully differentiated tissues, which have lost the power of cell division and contains non-dividing cells. These tissues are derived from meristematic tissue.
Q.22.Difference between the Dicot Roots and the Monocot Roots?
|Dicot Roots||Monocot Roots|
|1.Secondary growth is present.||1.Secondary growth is absent.|
|2.Cortex is very narrow.||2.Cortex is very wide.|
|3.Older root has a covering of cork.||3.Older root has a covering of exodermis.|
|4.Xylem vessels are generally angular.||4.Xylem vessels are oval or rounded.|
|Examples are Beans, Peanuts, Pea, etc.||Examples are Banana, Palm, Maize, etc.|
Q.23. What is secondary growth in case of roots of plants?
A.23. Secondary growth in roots is defined as the growth that results from the cell division in the cambia or the lateral meristems.
Q.24.What is the Hutchinson’s system of classification in case of plants?
A.24. It is the phylogenetic system of classification, which was proposed by John Hutchinson, an English botanist, and taxonomist. This classification is based on the three main features-
- Evolutionary tendencies.
- Natural characteristics of plants.
- Inter-relationship among the angiosperms plants.
Q.25. Different types of tissues in plants are?
A.25. The classification of plant tissues are mainly based on two important criteria:
*Based on the part of the plants-
- Epidermal Tissues.
- Vascular Tissues.
- Ground Tissues.
*Based on the types of cells-
- Meristematic tissues.
- Permanent tissues.
Anatomy Of Flowering Plants Class 11 Toppers Notes
Q.26. Differentiate between Xylem and the phloem.
|1.It is a complex tissue.||1.It is a living tissue.|
|2.It mainly contains dead cells.||2.It mainly contains living cells.|
|3.The flow is unidirectional.||3.The flow is bidirectional.|
|4.Located in the centre of the vascular bundle.||4.Located on the outer side of the vascular bundle.|
|5.Transports minerals and waters from the roots.||5.Transports prepared food materials to different parts of the plants.|
Q.27.Explain the following terms:- Angiosperms, Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons.
Angiosperms: The flowering plants of Kingdom Plantae are called as Angiosperms. They are the most diverse group of terrestrial habitat plants. They are seeds producing plants.
Monocotyledons: The monocotyledons are also referred to as monocots. They are the flowering plants or also called Angiosperms, which produces seeds containing only one cotyledon. Legumes are best examples of monocotyledons.
Dicotyledons: The dicotyledons are also referred to as dicots. They are the flowering plants or Angiosperms, which produces seeds containing two cotyledons. Grains are best examples of dicotyledons.
Q.28.Differentiate between Monocot stems and dicot stems.
|Dicot Stems||Monocot Stems|
|1.Vascular bundles are arranged in the form of rings.||1.Vascular bundles are scattered.|
|2.Pith present.||2.Pith absent.|
|3.Medullary rays present.||3.Medullary rays absent.|
|4.The hypodermis is chlorenchymatous.||4.The hypodermis is sclerenchymatous.|
|5.Undergo the silica deposition.||5.Do not undergo silica deposition.|
Q.29.What are flowering plants and non-flowering plants? Give examples.
A.29.Flowering plants are most diverse group of the terrestrial habitat plants, which produce flowers, seeds,and fruits. These plants are also known as angiosperms. Altogether, there are almost 300,000 known species of the flowering plants. Examples of angiosperms are Rose, lily, marigold, etc.
Non-flowering plants are the other types of plant that bear seeds directly without producing the fruits and flowers. These plants are also known as gymnosperms and they bear naked seeds without covering. Therefore, there are very fewer species of gymnosperms compared to the angiosperms. Examples of gymnosperms are cypress, redwood and pine, etc.
Q.30.Differentiate between sapwood and heartwood?
|1.It is of dark colour.||1.It is of light colour.|
|2.It is heavier in weight.||2.It is lighter in weight.|
|3.Its cells are comparatively older.||3.Its cells are comparatively younger.|
|4.It is the central part of old stem.||4.It is the outer part of old stem.|
|5.It is a durable wood and I’d suitable for the making furniture.||5.It is not a durable wood and is not suitable for making the furniture.|
|6.The heartwood has resistant to insects and the fungal attacks.||6.The sapwood is more susceptible to the insects and fungal attacks.|
Practice- Questions For Class 11 Biology Chapter 6 Anatomy of Flowering Plants Class 11
1) A piece of wood having no vessels (trachea) must belongs to-
(a) Pine (b) Mango (c) Teak (d) Palm
2) When we peel skin of a potato tuber we remove the –
(a) Periderm (b) Sapwood (c) Cuticle (d)Epidermis
3) Describe internal structure of dorsiventral leaf with help of labelled diagram.
4) Compare between the following:
(a) Endarch and exarch condition of protoxylem
(b) Vascular bundle and Stele
(c) Metaxylem and protoxylem
(d) Intrafascicular cambium and interfascicular cambium
(e) Closed and open vascular bundles
(f) Root hair and stem hair.
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